Submitted to: Symposium Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: March 1, 2002
Publication Date: March 6, 2002
Citation: Chung, O.K., Tilley, M. 2002. Cereal research in the USA. Conference Report of the EU/ICC Cereal Conference 2002 (ECC 2002): Implementation of the European Research Area. (Proceedings) Pages 55-57. Interpretive Summary: Proceedings of the EU/ICC Cereal Conference 2002 (ECC 2002)
Technical Abstract: The goals of agricultural research in the U.S. are to enhance the economic viability and competitiveness of the U.S. by maintaining the quality of harvested agricultural commodities or otherwise enhancing their marketability, meeting consumer needs, developing environmentally friendly and efficient processing concepts, and expanding market opportunities through the development of value-added food and nonfood products and processes. Research is conducted by public (Federal and State Agencies) and private (Industry) sectors. This presentation is limited to the public sectors, including the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), State Agricultural Experiment Stations (SAES) located in land-grant universities, other universities and also other cooperating institutions. Research is funded mainly by Federal Departments (USDA and others), State Agencies, and to a lesser extent by other non-federal and non-state agencies. In the year 2000, the total funds for agricultural research were nearly 3.5 billion dollars, of which 48% ($1.67 billion) was from federal funds, 35.6% ($1.23 billion) from State appropriations, and 16.4% ($567.2 million) from non-federal and non-state support. Cereal grain research accounts for a small portion of the total U.S. agricultural research. Among the cereal grains, corn (maize) research is most active followed by wheat research. Other grains in order of funding include rice, grain sorghum, and lastly rye. Cereal grains research is supported slightly more by federal than by non-federal funds. However, rice, grain sorghum, and grain crops research projects were funded slightly more by non-federal sources. The U.S. supports the use of biotechnology for the development of enhanced agricultural products, and has a rigorous system involving three Federal Agencies that regulates and monitors agricultural biotechnology including the evaluation of genetically modified crops that may be used for human and animal consumption at all levels of production.