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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Selection of Alternative Genetic Sources of Large Seed Size in Virginia-Type Peanut -- Evaluation of Sensory, Composition and Agronomic Characteristics

Authors
item Pattee, Harold
item Isleib, Thomas - NC STATE UNIVERSITY
item Gorbet, Daniel - UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
item Giesbrecht, Francis - NC STATE UNIVERSITY

Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 25, 2002
Publication Date: September 3, 2002
Citation: PATTEE, H.E., ISLEIB, T.G., GORBET, D.W., GIESBRECHT, F.G. SELECTION OF ALTERNATIVE GENETIC SOURCES OF LARGE SEED SIZE IN VIRGINIA-TYPE PEANUT -- EVALUATION OF SENSORY, COMPOSITION AND AGRONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS. JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL AND FOOD CHEMISTRY. 2002. V. 50. P. 4885-4889.

Interpretive Summary: Roasted peanut flavor is a primary factor in peanut quality and is often overlooked in development of new peanut breeding lines and cultivars. Such is the case when the large-seeded peanut varieties were initially developed. Jenkins Jumbo, the source of large seed size in the virginia market-type, has been shown to have a deleterious ancestral effect on peanut flavor. The pervasiveness of Jenkins Jumbo in the ancestry of large-seeded germplasm contributes to the generally less intense roasted peanut flavor of the virginia market-type. Out of nine potential new parent lines for the large-seed trait only one very large-seeded selection derived from Japan Jumbo had flavor scores slightly superior to the common large-seeded variety grown today. Other lines, which had or were likely to have Jenkins Jumbo as a recent ancestor had generally poor flavor, supporting the hypothesis that ancestry from Jenkins Jumbo imparts poor flavor characteristics. This information is especially important in helping peanut breeders make potential parent selections in current peanut breeding programs.

Technical Abstract: Jenkins Jumbo, the source of large seed size in the virginia market-type, has been shown to have a deleterious ancestral effect on peanut flavor. The pervasiveness of Jenkins Jumbo in the ancestry of large-seeded germplasm contributes to the generally less intense roasted peanut flavor of the virginia market-type. As a remedy to this problem, alternative sources of large seed size have been identified and used as parents in crosses. Nine large-seeded selections were tested with NC 7 and Florunner as checks in replicated trials at two locations in North Carolina and one in northern Florida in 1996 and 1997. Pod yield and grade were measured, and a descriptive sensory panel evaluated roasted peanut paste from SMK samples of each plot. NC 7, the standard large-seeded virginia cultivar, scored low for sweet sensory attribute, high for bitter and median for roasted peanut. UF 714021, a multiline incorporating the Altika cultivar along with several selections out of Altika, had the best flavor profile of the large-seeded selections, but it did not have particularly large seeds relative to NC 7 (786 vs 1016 mg seed-1). One very large-seeded (119 mg seed-1) selection derived from Japan Jumbo had flavor scores slightly superior to NC 7 (3.06 vs 3.04 flavor intensity units [ns] for roasted peanut, 2.81 vs 2.66 fiu [ns] for sweet, and 3.50 vs 3.86 fiu [P<0.05] for bitter). Other lines, which had or were likely to have Jenkins Jumbo as a recent ancestor had generally poor flavor, supporting the hypothesis that ancestry from Jenkins Jumbo imparts poor flavor characteristics.

Last Modified: 4/17/2014
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