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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Effects of Crop Residue over and Architecture on Heat and Water Transfer

Authors
item Flerchinger, Gerald
item Sauer, Thomas
item Aiken, Rob - KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY

Submitted to: Geoderma
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 24, 2002
Publication Date: January 20, 2003
Citation: Flerchinger, G.N., Sauer, T.J., Aiken, R.A., 2003. Effects of crop residue cover and architecture on heat and water transfer. Geoderma 116:217-233

Interpretive Summary: Residue and tillage management are important tools for soil and water conservation. The presence of residue and its orientation, i.e. standing stubble or distributed flat residues, significantly impacts evaporation, soil water storage, soil temperature, soil freezing and associated frozen-soil runoff. The Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) Model was tested on a variety of residue conditions for three locations: Ames, Iowa, Akron, Colorado, and Pullman, Washington. Modifications to the model were necessary to correctly simulate distributed flat corn residue. Once satisfied that the model reasonably simulated the affects of residue type and architecture on soil water and temperature, the model was applied to simulate the affects of differing residue architectures to 30 years of weather conditions for four diverse climate stations: Boise, Idaho; Spokane, Washington; Des Moines, Iowa; and Minneapolis, Minnesota. Simulation indicated that standing residues warmed sooner in the spring by as much as 7 to 9 days depending on location, which can have important ramifications for early seedling germination and plant establishment. Simulated frost depths for bare and standing residues were deeper than flat residues, however residue cover had little influence on frost depth in the severe winter conditions of Minneapolis. Bare soil had the highest evaporation at all sites, and flat wheat residue generally had the lowest evaporation. Results from this study can be used by managers to make more informed decisions for the effects of tillage and residue management on soil and water conservation.

Technical Abstract: Modeling the effects of crop residues on heat and water movement can be an effective tool to assess the benefits of differing residues types and architectures for various climates. The purpose of this study was to: test the ability of the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model for simulating the affects of residue type and architecture on heat and water transfer; and evaluate the impacts of differing residue types and architectures in significantly different climates. The model was applied to bare tilled soils and corn, wheat and millet residues having varying amounts of standing and distributed flat residues for three locations: Ames, Iowa, Akron, Colorado, and Pullman, Washington. Modifications to the model were necessary to correctly simulate the affect of wind on convective transfer through a flat corn residue layer. Once satisfied that the model reasonably simulated the affects of residue type and architecture on soil water and temperature, the model was applied to simulate the affects of differing residue architectures to 30 years of generated weather conditions for four diverse climate stations: Boise, Idaho; Spokane, Washington; Des Moines, Iowa; and Minneapolis, Minnesota. Simulated frost depths for bare and standing residues were typically deeper than flat residues, although residue cover had little influence on frost depth in the severe winter conditions of Minneapolis. Bare soil had the highest evaporation at all sites, and flat wheat residue generally had the lowest evaporation. The wetter climates (Des Moines and Minneapolis) tended to favor flat residues for reducing evaporation more so than the drier climates. Near-surface soil temperature under standing residues warmed to 5 C sooner in the spring by as much as 7 to 9 days depending on location.

Last Modified: 7/24/2014
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