Submitted to: Symposium Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: January 18, 2002
Publication Date: January 18, 2002
Citation: Chung, O.K., Tilley, M., Ohm, J.B., Caley, M.S., Seabourn, B.W. Hard winter wheats - past, present and future. Proceedings of the 5th Annual National Wheat Industry Research Forum. Pages 20-23. Interpretive Summary: Proceedings of 2002 Wheat Industry Conference and Exposition, Orlando, FL, January 15-18, 2002.
Technical Abstract: Wheat is the major crop representing about one-third of the world grain production. The U.S. produces about 66.5 MMT (2.24 billion bushels) of which 43% (28.8 MMT) enters the export market. The majority of the wheat is milled into flour for food uses, the remainder is used for animal feed, seed, and industrial uses. Nearly one-half of the wheat produced in the U.S. is Hard Red Winter (HRW) which is grown in the Great Plains Area. 'Turkey' was first HRW wheat grown in the Great Plains in 1873 and today's wheats differ in many ways. The number of HRW wheat varieties has increased from five in 1919 to 164 in 1984. Important traits selected in HRW wheat breeding are yield, test weight, kernel characteristics, disease resistance, stress tolerance, and agronomic appearance. Major end-use quality attributes of HRW wheats are milling and breadmaking characteristics. Nearly 100% of all released HRW wheat cultivars have been evaluated by the USDA/ARS Hard Winter Wheat Quality Laboratory (HWWQL). HRW wheat quality shows increasing trends in kernel weight and milling yield, but decreasing trends in protein content. The wheat industry is changing with the introduction of hard white wheat and additional products. HWW can yield 1-2% more flour with color properties that are desirable for Asian products. The HWWQL has contributed to the HWW wheat breeding program by testing the milling and breadmaking quality of HWW wheat varieties. Wheat use in the U.S. is changing from solely white bread to variety breads and non-bread products such as tortillas and pizza crust. Future opportunities include wheats developed for niche markets and the role biotechnology will have in wheat improvement. As with white wheat, identification and segregation issues will need to be addressed.