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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Application of Swat in the Evaluation of Salmon Habitat Remediation Policy

Author
item WHITTAKER, GERALD

Submitted to: Hydrological Processes
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: May 7, 2004
Publication Date: January 31, 2005
Citation: Whittaker, G.W. 2005. Application of swat in the evaluation of salmon habitat remediation policy. Hydrological Processes. v.19. p. 839-848.

Interpretive Summary: Agricultural nonpoint source water pollutants such as sediment, pesticides and nutrients have been identified as contributing to the environmental distress of salmon runs in the Pacific Northwest. Policies to control nonpoint pollution from agricultural production can be classified as command and control or economic incentive policies. In application of a command and control policy, a regulator (usually a government agency) mandates a reduction in emissions or limits an agricultural production activity. Examples are a mandated reduction in nutrient application, or a reduction in emission of a nutrient to streams. Economic incentive policies are designed to achieve the same level of pollution control, while allowing some flexibility in maximizing profit. A tax on inputs is one frequently cited incentive measure. In this study alternative policies to reduce nonpoint emissions from agriculture on the Columbia Plateau of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho are evaluated. The environmental efficiency and effects on profits by reduction of nitrogen from fertilizer under command and control regulation and tax incentives are compared.

Technical Abstract: Agricultural nonpoint source water pollutants such as sediment, pesticides and nutrients have been identified as contributing to the environmental distress of salmon runs in the Pacific Northwest. Policies to control nonpoint pollution from agricultural production can be classified as command and control or economic incentive policies. In application of a command and control policy, a regulator (usually a government agency) mandates a reduction in emissions or limits an agricultural production activity. Examples are a mandated reduction in nutrient application, or a reduction in emission of a nutrient to streams. Economic incentive policies are designed to achieve the same level of pollution control, while allowing some flexibility in maximizing profit. A tax on inputs is one frequently cited incentive measure. In this study alternative policies to reduce nonpoint emissions from agriculture on the Columbia Plateau of Washington, Oregon, and Idaho are evaluated. The environmental efficiency and effects on profits by reduction of nitrogen from fertilizer under command and control regulation and tax incentives are compared.

Last Modified: 9/10/2014
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