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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Determining Individual Requirements for Energy

Author
item Lukaski, Henry

Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: November 23, 2001
Publication Date: April 1, 2002
Citation: Lukaski, H.C. 2002. Determining individual requirements for energy. In: Maughan, R.J., Burke, L., editors. Sports Nutrition: Handbook of Sports Medicine and Science. Oxford:Blackwell Publishers. p. 6-14.

Interpretive Summary: Among professionals who work with and counsel athletes, there is an increasing awareness of a marked discrepancy between self-reports of energy intake and technical measurements of energy expenditure. The magnitude of these discrepancies range from 2 to 34% with considerable between athlete variability. These errors tend to be greater among female compared to male athletes. Also, the differences increase with increased energy needs of th physical activity. Some general tendencies have been identified. For example, athletes who participate in sports that include a component of aesthetics, including a low body weight, or weight classes, tend to under- report food intake. Also, athletes with a high body mass index (e.g., weight/height**2) generally underestimate food and energy intake. This tendency to limit the recording and reporting of food intake is problematic because it hampers the estimation of micronutrients (e.g., minerals and vitamins) as well as macronutrients (e.g., protein, carbohydrate and fat). Coaches, athletic trainers and nutritionists should be aware of this behavior. This information will be useful to health professionals who are responsible for the health and well being of competitive athletes and advisory groups charged with making recommendations for nutrient intakes for health and optimal physical performance.

Technical Abstract: Among professionals who work with and counsel athletes, there is an increasing awareness of a marked discrepancy between self-reports of energy intake and technical measurements of energy expenditure. The magnitude of these discrepancies range from 2 to 34% with considerable between athlete variability. These errors tend to be greater among female compared to male athletes. Also, the differences increase with increased energy needs of th physical activity. Some general tendencies have been identified. For example, athletes who participate in sports that include a component of aesthetics, including a low body weight, or weight classes, tend to under- report food intake. Also, athletes with a high body mass index (e.g., weight/height**2) generally underestimate food and energy intake. This tendency to limit the recording and reporting of food intake is problematic because it hampers the estimation of micronutrients (e.g., minerals and vitamins) as well as macronutrients (e.g., protein, carbohydrate and fat). Coaches, athletic trainers and nutritionists should be aware of this behavior. This information will be useful to health professionals who are responsible for the health and well being of competitive athletes and advisory groups charged with making recommendations for nutrient intakes for health and optimal physical performance.

Last Modified: 11/27/2014
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