Submitted to: International Rice Genetics Symposium
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: September 3, 2001
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: This presentation was in Russia in 2001. The mission of the Center is to conduct research to keep the U.S. rice industry competitive in the global marketplace, by assuring high yields, superior grain quality, pest resistance and stress tolerance. Major emphases are on multidisciplinary team approaches for genetic improvement of rice, and biology and control of fweeds. Disciplines include genetics, cytogenetics, molecular genetics, molecular plant pathology, molecular biology, germplasm evaluation, grain chemistry, and plant physiology. Much genetic improvement of rice in the U.S. has been through conventional pedigree breeding, for characters such as short stature and disease resistance. Useful mutants have been induced for semidwarfism, early maturity, blutinous endosperm, and low phytic acid. Virtually all U.S. rice is japonica: temperate japonica as in California, or tropical japonica as in the southern U.S. Narrow germplasm bases are present in these japonicas, related to specific quality and cooking characteristics: low amylose (14-16%), moist and chewy cooked rice in the temperate japonica; and intermediate amylose (20-22%), dry and flaky cooked rice in the topical japonicas. In recent years high-yielding indica rices have been identified that provide incentive for indica conversion programs. Since the indicas do not have satisfactory cooking characters for U.S. markets. A challenging opportunity is to create U.S. long grain quality in high-yield, disease resistant, indica background.