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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Southeastern Coastal Plain Tillage and Pest Management in a Peanut-Cotton Rotation.

Authors
item Johnson, Wiley
item Brenneman, Timothy - UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA
item Baker, Shelby - RETIRED/UNIV OF GEORGIA
item Johnson, Alva - RETIRED/USDA ARS
item Sumner, Donald - RETIRED/UNIV OF GEORGIA
item Mullinix, Jr, Benjamin - UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA

Submitted to: Certified Crop Advisors Advantage
Publication Type: Trade Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 13, 2001
Publication Date: October 19, 2001
Citation: Johnson, W.C., Brenneman, T.B., Baker, S.H., Johnson, A.W., Sumner, D.D., Mullinix, Jr., B.G. 2001. Southeastern coastal plain tillage and pest management in a peanut-cotton rotation. Available: http://www.cropdecisions.com/cca/ccaadv200107.pdf.

Interpretive Summary: Cotton acreage in the southeastern U.S. has significantly increased in recent years, making a peanut-cotton rotation the most common rotation sequence in the coastal plain region. Significant proportions of both crops are being grown using conservation-tillage. Studies were conducted from 1994 to 1998 in Tifton, GA on the effects of tillage on crop and pest management in a peanut-cotton rotation. Conventional-tillage plots were harrowed, deep-turned, bedded, and planted in the spring each year. Reduced-tillage plots were planted to a rye cover crop, treated with glyphosate, and crops planted into the killed cover. Minimum-tillage plots remained nontilled during the winter, treated with glyphosate, and crops planted directly into the previous crop debris. Plots planted to peanut were further split and either treated or not treated with flutolanil. Crop yields were sustained for five years in continuous reduced- and minimum- tillage systems, with no difference in peanut or cotton yields among tillage systems. Flutolanil effectively controlled soil-borne diseases and increased peanut yields, and worked equally well in all three tillage systems. Weed species composition changed in reduced- and minimum-tillage plots, causing weed control expenditures at the end of the study to increase by 400% over weed control costs at the beginning of the study. Incidence of spotted wilt in peanut was 42% lower in reduced- and minimum- tillage systems than peanut grown in conventional tillage systems, which is of value in the integrated management of the viral disease. These results also show that incidence soil-borne diseases of peanut do not increase in conservation-tillage and over time in a peanut-cotton rotation, alleviating previous concerns about these tillage systems and cropping systems.

Technical Abstract: Studies were conducted from 1994 to 1998 in Tifton, GA on the effects of tillage on crop and pest management in a peanut-cotton rotation. Conventional-tillage plots were harrowed, deep-turned, bedded, and planted in the spring each year. Reduced-tillage plots were harrowed in the fall after previous crop harvest, planted to a rye cover crop, treated with glyphosate in the early spring to kill the rye, and crops planted into the killed cover using a strip-tillage planter. Minimum-tillage plots were neither tilled nor planted to rye after crop harvest, remained nontilled during the winter, treated with glyphosate in the early spring to control winter weeds, and crops planted directly into the previous crop debris using a strip-tillae planter. Maintenance weed control in both crops was based on weeds present, by tillage system. Plots planted to peanut were further split and either treated or not treated with flutolanil. Crop yields were sustained for five years in continuous reduced- and minimum- tillage systems, with no difference in peanut or cotton yields among tillage systems. Flutolanil effectively controlled soil-borne diseases and increased peanut yields over nontreated controls and worked equally well in all three tillage systems. Weed densities and species composition changed during the trial, causing more intensive weed control efforts in continuous reduced- and minimum-tillage plots than in conventional-tillage plots. Weed control expenditures necessary to maintain peanut and cotton yields in continuous reduced- and minimum-tillage systems increased from the beginning to the end of the trial by over 400%. Incidence of spotted wilt (tomato spotted wilt tospovirus) in peanut was 42% lower in reduced- and minimum-tillage systems than peanut grown in conventional tillage systems.

Last Modified: 10/25/2014
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