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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Cytology and Interspecific Hybridization

Author
item Jan, Chao-Chien

Submitted to: Sunflower Monograph Crop Science Society
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: April 17, 1997
Publication Date: N/A

Interpretive Summary: For two decades, continuing efforts to understanding basic sunflower cytology, species relationships, and interspecific hybridization have provided useful information, technology, and valuable germplasm for improvement of cultivated sunflower. Improved embryo culturing procedures facilitated difficult interspecific hybridization between perennial diploid Helianthus species and cultivated lines. Efficient use of chromosomal doubling techniques provided a means of F1 fertility restoration and production of fertile amphiploids used as bridge in gene transfer. Autotetraploidproduced in cultivated line led to production of trisomics genetic stocks. New cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) and nuclear male sterility lines have been derived from wild sunflower species and induced from mutation. Haploids were successfully produced via anther culture from wild Helianthus species, interspecific hybrids, and inbred lines. This is a revision of "Cytology & Interspecific Hybridization" by Whelan in the previous edition of a monograph "Sunflower Science & Technology" of American Society of Agronomy published in 1978. Significant contributions in the field of sunflower cytology, cytogenetics, and interspecific hybridization from 1978 to 1997 were incorporated. Sunflower genomes are discussed using DNA content, mitotic metaphase karyotype, and variation in chromosome numbers. Microsporogenesis and megasporogenesis are discussed in both normal fertile and less fertile interspecific hybrids and in male-sterile plants. Male-sterility resulting from nuclear genes, cytoplasms, and induced mutation are evaluated. Interspecific hybridization is discussed with respect to interspecific relationship, genomic differentiation, and gene transfer.

Technical Abstract: For two decades, continuing efforts to understanding basic sunflower cytology, species relationships, and interspecific hybridization have provided useful information, technology, and valuable germplasm for improvement of cultivated sunflower. Improved embryo culturing procedures facilitated difficult interspecific hybridization between perennial diploid Helianthus species and cultivated lines. Efficient use of chromosomal doubling techniques provided a means of F1 fertility restoration and production of fertile amphiploids used as bridge in gene transfer. Autotetraploidproduced in cultivated line led to production of trisomics genetic stocks. New cytoplasmic male sterility (cms) and nuclear male sterility lines have been derived from wild sunflower species and induced from mutation. Haploids were successfully produced via anther culture from wild Helianthus species, interspecific hybrids, and inbred lines. This is a revision of "Cytology & Interspecific Hybridization" by Whelan in the previous edition of a monograph "Sunflower Science & Technology" of American Society of Agronomy published in 1978. Significant contributions in the field of sunflower cytology, cytogenetics, and interspecific hybridization from 1978 to 1997 were incorporated. Sunflower genomes are discussed using DNA content, mitotic metaphase karyotype, and variation in chromosome numbers. Microsporogenesis and megasporogenesis are discussed in both normal fertile and less fertile interspecific hybrids and in male-sterile plants. Male-sterility resulting from nuclear genes, cytoplasms, and induced mutation are evaluated. Interspecific hybridization is discussed with respect to interspecific relationship, genomic differentiation, and gene transfer.

Last Modified: 10/30/2014
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