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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Prevention of Escherichia Coli Infection in Broiler Chickens with Bacteriophage (Spr02)

Authors
item Huff, William
item Huff, Geraldine
item Rath, Narayan
item Balog, Janice
item Xie, Hang - UNIVERSITY OF ARKANSAS
item Moore, Philip
item Donoghue, Ann

Submitted to: Poultry Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 30, 2002
Publication Date: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Bacteriophage are viruses that can infect and kill bacteria. Three studies were conducted to determine the efficacy of bacteriophage to prevent an E. coli respiratory infection in broiler chickens. In the first study 3-d- old-birds were challenged with an air sac inoculation of 10**3 cfu of E. coli per mL mixed with either 10**3 or 10**6 pfu of bacteriophage, or 10**4 4cfu E. coli mixed with either 10**4 or 10**8 pfu of bacteriophage. In th second study, water of birds to 1 week of age was treated with 10**3 or 10**4 pfu of bacteriophage per mL and birds were air sac challenged with 10**3 cfu of E. coli, or water was treated with 10**4 or 10**6 pfu of bacteriophage per mL and birds were challenged with 10**4 cfu of E. coli. In the third study, birds were air sac challenged at 1 wk of age with 10**4 cfu of E. coli and given either 10**5 or 10**6 pfu of bacteriophage per mL of water from day of age to 2 wk of age. The studies were concluded when the birds were 3 wk of age. Mortality was decreased from 80% in the bird challenged with 10**3 cfu of E. coli to 25% and 5% when mixed with 10**3 or 10**6 pfu of the bacteriophage. Mortality was decreased from 85% in birds challenged with 10**4 cfu of E. coli to 35% when mixed with 10**4 pfu of the bacteriophage, and no mortality occurred when mixed with 10**8 pfu of bacteriophage. There was essentially no protection in Studies 2 and 3 when the birds were challenged with 10**3 or 10**4 cfu of E. coli with bacteriophage present in the water. Data suggest that bacteriophage can protect birds from a respiratory challenge with E. coli, but that adding the bacteriophage to the drinking water offered no protection to the birds. The protection of the birds seen in Study 1 suggests that bacteriophage may possibly be developed as an alternative to antibiotic use in poultry.

Technical Abstract: Bacteriophage are viruses that can infect and kill bacteria. Three studies were conducted to determine the efficacy of bacteriophage to prevent an E. coli infection in broiler chickens. In the first study 3-d-old-birds were challenged with an air sac inoculation of 10**3 cfu of E. coli mixed with either 10**3 or 10**6 pfu of bacteriophage, or 10**4 cfu E. coli mixed with heither 10**4 or 10**8 pfu of bacteriophage. In the second study, drinkin water of birds was treated with 10**3 or 10**4 pfu of bacteriophage and birds challenged with 10**3 cfu, or water was treated with 10**4 or 10**6 pfu of bacteriophage and birds were challenged with 10**4 cfu. In the third study, birds were challenged at 1 wk of age with 10**4 cfu and given either 10**5 or 10**6 pfu of bacteriophage of water to 2 wk of age. In Study 1 BW was decreased at 1 and 2 wk of age in the birds challenged with 10**3 or 10**4 cfu of E. coli, and at 2 wk of age with 10**4 cfu of E. coli imixed with 10**4 pfu of the bacteriophage. Mortality was decreased from 80% in the birds challenged with 10**3 cfu of E. coli to 25% and 5% when mixed with 10**3 or 10**6 pfu of the bacteriophage. Mortality was decreased from 85% in birds challenged with 10**4 cfu to 35% when mixed with 10**4 pfu bacteriophage, and no mortality occurred when mixed with 10**8 pfu of bacteriophage. There was no protection observed in Studies 2 and 3. These data suggest that bacteriophage can protect birds from a respiratory challenge with E. coli, but that adding the bacteriophage to the drinking water offered no protection. The complete protection of the birds seen in Study 1 suggests that bacteriophage may be developed as an alternative to antibiotic use in poultry.

Last Modified: 4/18/2014
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