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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Repellents and Other Methods for Personal Protection from Insect and Antropod Attack.

Author
item Barnard, Donald

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: March 30, 2000
Publication Date: N/A

Technical Abstract: Personal protection from blood sucking arthropods and the diseases they transmit can be achieved by using clothing, screens, nets and netting enclosures, by avoiding insect infested areas, and by using repellents. Natural and synthetic repellents can be applied to the skin to protect against biting insects, whereas toxicants, such as permethrin, can be applied to fabric used for clothing, tents, bednets, sleeping bags, and ground cloths. Natural repellents include pyrethrum and several essential oils, such as citronella and the use of folk remedies. Synthetic repellents include (a) KBR 3023, which is repellent to mosquitoes, black flies, stable flies, Gasterophilus spp. and ticks; (b) IR 3535, which is an effective against mosquitoes, deer flies, and tsetse fly; (c) USDA AI3- 37220, which is repellent to mosquitoes, stable flies, deer flies, black flies, and biting midges; and (d) deet. Deet effectively repels mosquitoes sand other biting flies, chiggers, fleas, and ticks. Clothing fabric treated with permethrin provides protection from mosquitoes and other flying and crawling arthropods. Permethrin is stable in light and remains active on fabric after many washes. An optimal strategy for protection against blood sucking and disease-bearing arthropods is to use deet on the skin and to wear permethrin-treated clothing. Mechanical insect repellent devices such as electric light traps with electrocution grids and ultrasound devices are ineffective. In contrast, electric heating plates for vaporizing pyrethroids reduce mosquito landing rates on humans. No effective systemic insect repellents are available.

Last Modified: 12/25/2014
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