|Cutlip, Randall - USDA-ARS-MWA-NADC|
Submitted to: Societa Italiana Veterinari Per Animali De Reddito National Meeting
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: June 2, 2000
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: Among the most economically important infectious diseases of swine are those that are caused by viruses and affect the respiratory tract. Although respiratory diseases have always been a problem for the swine industry they seem to have markedly increased in prevalence and economic impact during the last several decades. There are probably 2 major reasons. First and foremost is the dramatic change in the method of swine production. It now often includes mixing large numbers of pigs from more than 1 location in large confinement facilities wherein both close contact and the environment foster the rapid spread of viral pathogens, especially those that are spread through aerosols. Second, new pathogens and new strains of existing pathogens have emerged. This review focuses on 2 virus-induced diseases, namely porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and pseudorabies (PR), that are: 1) prevalent throughout much of the world where swine are raised; and 2) characterized in part by their effect on the respiratory tract. From either a herd or a larger geographical perspective, the successful control of both PRRS and PR depends on a cascade of actions beginning with a correct and timely diagnosis. Once the diagnosis has been made, the ensuing steps will depend largely on factors unique for the particular herd or production system under investigation. The format of this review is to first provide a brief introduction concerning the nature and scope of the respiratory disease problem faced by the swine industries world wide and then provide more specific details concerning the cause, transmission, clinical signs, diagnosis, and prevention of PRRS and PR.