Submitted to: Swine Disease Conference Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: November 12, 1999
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: Porcine circovirus (PCV) is a newly emerged pathogen of swine that causes the disease porcine multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). This disease was first observed in western Canada in 1991. Loss of body weight, respiratory distress, diarrhea, pallor, and icterus in nursery age pigs were the originally observed manifestations of the PMWS. The disease has spread rapidly and is now reported throughout Canada, in the U.S., and in several countries in Europe. Recent research efforts directed at analysis of the viral genome have found that at least two viral genotypes of PCV exist. Viral genotype 1 has been detected infrequently in pigs and has not been linked with PMWS. Viral genotype 2 has been linked to PMWS, but also has been detected in swine herds that do not have any clinical signs of disease. Because this disease is new, very little is known about how PCV spreads or how it is maintained in nature. The duration of infection of pigs with PCV, routes of viral shedding, and duration of passive or active immunity to PCV also are unknown. An organized and consistent research effort is needed to obtain meaningful information on PCV and on PMWS. This information will provide swine producers and veterinary practitioners with a knowledge base from which intervention and disease control strategies may be formed.