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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Protein Quality in Eastern United States Soft Wheats

Author
item Finney, Patrick

Submitted to: Eastern Wheat Workers and Southern Small Grain Workers Proceedings
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: December 20, 1999
Publication Date: N/A

Interpretive Summary: The purpose of this research was to assess for their dual purpose potential both commercial wheat cultivars and breeders promising wheat lines. "Dual purpose" wheats are defined as wheats whose flours can be formulated in both breads and confectionary products. Results showed that dual purpose soft wheat cultivars exist in today's commercial cultivars and in advanced lines from the State breeding programs studied when using classical soft wheat quality analytical, milling and baking traits and measurements of protein quality strength using measurements of how long it takes to develop flour and water into dough. By 1984, about 60% of the eastern U.S. soft wheat cultivars contained strong enough dough to be classified as dual purpose. Today that percentage is likely more nearly 25%. Thus, it is likely, if eastern soft wheat cultivars were binned at the initial sale by either high or low protein strength, the stronger protein wheat composites would satisfy millers and bakers whose flour requirements presently include percentages of stronger-protein flours from hard wheats grown in the central United States for products such as saltine-type crackers. Thus, this research shows how millers and bakers can save transportation costs for moving wheat from the central US to mills located throughout the eastern half of the country by instead purchasing stronger dough-mixing eastern soft wheat.

Technical Abstract: The purpose of this research was to assess four sets of wheat breeders samples for their dual purpose potential. "Dual purpose" wheats are defined as wheats whose flours can be formulated in both breads and confectionary products. Since confectionary products require soft flour and bread products require strong dough-mixing flours, only strong dough-mixing soft wheats produces flours with the necessary and sufficient properties to be truly dual purpose. Dual purpose wheats possess both soft wheat characteristics (i.e., are soft textured enough to yield fine flour particle size, low alkaline water retention capacity (AWRC), low damaged starch and large sugar-snap cookie) and possess very good bread baking quality with strong dough mixing properties as measured by the Mixograph. Results showed that dual purpose soft wheat cultivars exist in today's commercial cultivars and in advanced lines from both State breeding programs studied when using classical soft wheat quality analytical, milling and baking traits and measurements of protein quality strength including Mixograph mixing properties, lactic Acid Retention Capacity and bread loaf volume. By 1984, about 60% of the eastern U.S. soft wheat cultivars contained 5+10 high molecular weight glutenin subunits, a glutenin fraction associated with protein mixing strength when compared to HMW Glu subunits 2+12. Today that percentage is nearly 25%. Likely, if eastern soft wheat cultivars were binned at the initial sale by either high or low protein strength, the stronger protein wheat composites would satisfy manufacturers whose flour requirements presently include percentages of stronger-protein flours from hard wheats for products such as saltine-type crackers.

Last Modified: 9/29/2014
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