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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Present and Future Technologies for Tick Control; Technologies for Tick Control

Author
item George, John

Submitted to: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 12, 1999
Publication Date: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Arsenic dips, the first effective method for controlling ticks and tick- borne diseases affecting cattle, were used worldwide for over 50 years before resistance to the chemical became a problem. Until organochlorine pesticides became available about 1946 as alternatives to arsenic, significant losses occurred in cattle herds exposed to arsenic-resistant tick strains. Since the discovery of organochlorines, virtually every chemical group of pesticides developed for the control of arthropods is represented among the list of products used for controlling ticks. The evolution of tick resistance to tickicides has been a major determinant of the need for new products. Methods for treating animals with acaricide ranges from dipping cattle to injecting systemic acaricides, but whatever treatment method used, producers need to know and follow proper application procedures to derive maximum benefits. The possibility of stocking with cattle breeds that acquire pronounced immunological resistance to ticks or using anti-tick vaccines are promising alternatives to tickicides. Most ranchers depend completely on tickicides for controlling their ticks, but do not have access to guidelines on how to make a profit from their tick- control program or how to detect and resolve problems with resistance to tickicides. Extension programs are needed to help ranchers manage animal health problems, including how to control ticks and tick-borne diseases.

Technical Abstract: Arsenic dips, the first effective method for controlling ticks and tick- borne diseases affecting cattle, were used worldwide for over 50 years before resistance to the chemical became a problem. Until organochlorine products became available about 1946 as alternatives to arsenic, significant losses occurred in cattle herds exposed to arsenic-resistant tick strains. Since the discovery of organochlorines, virtually every chemical group of pesticides developed for the control of arthropods is represented among the list of products used for controlling ticks. The evolution of tick resistance to acaricides has been a major determinant of the need for new products. Methods for treating animals with acaricide range from dipping cattle to injecting systemic acaricides, but whatever treatment method used, producers need to know and follow proper application procedures to derive maximum benefits. The possibility of stocking with cattle breeds that acquire resistance to ticks or using recombinant antige anti-tick vaccines are promising alternatives to acaricides. Most ranchers depend completely on acaricides for controlling their ticks, but do not have access to guidelines on how to make a profit from their tick-control program or how to detect and resolve problems with resistance to acaricides. Extension programs are needed to help ranchers manage animal health problems, including how to control ticks and tick-borne diseases.

Last Modified: 10/1/2014
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