Submitted to: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Publication Type: Proceedings
Publication Acceptance Date: March 16, 1999
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Worldwide toxicology problems in livestock and poultry are associated with several species of Fusarium and their toxic metabolites (mycotoxins), along with economic effects on plant and production. Toxicology investigations at RRC have linked toxic and suspect toxic livestock and poultry feeds to the co-occurrence of fusaric acid (FA), one of the most common mycotoxins produced by numerous species of Fusarium, with two other Fusarium metabolites: fumonisin B1 and deoxynivalenol (DON). Our studies linked changes in chemicals of the brain and pineal gland of rats to mechanisms associated with FA. Since DON has similar effects on brain chemicals as FA and the toxicities of both DON and fumonisin are increased by their co-occurrence with FA, these studies were aimed at developing in vitro assays for these mycotoxins with rat pineal gland tissue cultures. We have described a method for measuring levels of pineal and brain chemicals (5-hydroxytryptophan, serotonin, and melatonin) in cell cultures by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Results obtained on FA effects on the brain chemicals confirmed in vivo results that pineal cell cultures may be used as a bioassay for mycotoxic effects on brain chemicals and related effects. This is the first report to determine 5-hydroxytryptophan in cell cultures; the method also circumvents other assays, is more convenient, economical, and eliminates the need for radiological materials and disposal.
Technical Abstract: Analysis of melatonin (MEL) in pineal cell culture by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay showed its concentration was increased by Fusaric acid (FA), a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium species and associated with toxic and suspect toxic duck and ostrich feeds. Subsequent cell culture studies demonstrated the precursors of MEL, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP) and serotonin (5HT), were also affected by FA as well as other Fusarium mycotoxins. Herein we describe a technique for the analysis of 5HTP and 5HT in pineal cell cultures using HPLC with electrochemical detection, and report on the effects of FA alone and in combination with fumonisin B1 and deoxynivalenol on the levels of these MEL precursors.