|Sardanelli, Sandra - UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND|
Submitted to: Journal of Nematology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 11, 1999
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Plant parasitic nematodes attack all crops of agricultural importance, causing over $8 billion in losses annually to U. S. farmers. One problem facing growers is that environmental concerns will result in the elimination of some of the currently used chemical nematicides from the United States within the next two years. Consequently, the discovery of environmentally and economically sound replacement control agents is critical. In this paper, we report the discovery of a naturally occurring chemical within the soybean cyst nematode, a serious pest in the United States, which is associated with nematode movement and feeding. The chemical is a peptide and is essential to growth and development of this pest. This discovery is significant because it is the first report of such a compound within a plant-parasitic nematode. The discovery presents an opportunity to study an endogenous regulatory molecule for the development of novel approaches to pest control. This information will be used by researchers in the agrochemical and agricultural biotechnology industries who are developing safe, selective methods for nematode control.
Technical Abstract: Material antigenically related to the neuromodulatory peptide FMRFamide was detected and examined in preparations of the soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, and in the free-living nematodes, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Panagrellus redivivus. FMRFamide related peptides (FaRP) were quantified by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Specific activities were remarkably similar among all of the vermiform members of the three species. FaRP immunoactivity was present in both sexes and all stages of H. glycines examined. The highest specific activity was present in second stage juveniles (J2) and in males, and the lowest in white and yellow females. Total FaRP level per individual was highest in brown females, with 90% of the activity associated with the eggs. FaRP levels in these eggs and in J2 were comparable, and increased in adults, especially in females. Chromatographic analysis of FaRP complements from H. glycines J2, C. elegans, and P. redivivus revealed distinct qualitative differences between the infective plant parasite and the free-living nematodes.