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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Baking Performance of Durum and Soft Wheat Flour in a Sponge-Dough Breadmaking Procedure.

Authors
item Hareland, Gary
item Puhr, Dehdra

Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 29, 1998
Publication Date: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Breadmaking properties were determined from formulations that included durum, soft, and spring wheat flour using a 1-lb sponge-dough baking procedure. Up to 60% durum or soft wheat flour plus 10% spring wheat flour could be incorporated at the sponge stage for optimum dough handling properties. At remix, the dough stage required 30% spring wheat flour. Bread made with 100% spring wheat flour was used as a standard for comparison. Bread made with 60% durum flour exhibited internal crumb color that was slightly yellow. When storing 1-1b loaves of bread for 72 hr, crumb moisture content remained unchanged, however, the shelf life properties of bread were different among the flour formulations. Rate of crumb firmness and starch recrystallization was the greatest in bread made with 60% soft wheat flour; rate of crumb firmness changed the least in bread made with 100% spring wheat flour; and starch recrystallization changed the least in bread made with 60% durum flour. Ball-milling the flour resulted in an increase in water absorption by approximately 2 percentage points and crumb moisture content by approximately 0.5 percentage points, but had no effect on either crumb firmness or starch recrystallization.

Technical Abstract: Breadmaking properties were determined from formulations that included durum, soft, and spring wheat flour using a 1-lb sponge-dough baking procedure. Up to 60% durum or soft wheat flour plus 10% spring wheat flour could be incorporated at the sponge stage for optimum dough handling properties. At remix, the dough stage required 30% spring wheat flour. Bread made with 100% spring wheat flour was used as a standard for comparison. Bread made with 60% durum flour exhibited internal crumb color that was slightly yellow. When storing 1-lb loaves of bread for 72 hr, crumb moisture content remained unchanged; crumb firmness and enthalpy increased the greatest in bread made with 60% soft wheat flour, crumb firmness increased the least in bread made with 100% spring wheat flour; and enthalpy changed the least in bread made with 60% durum flour. Crumb moisture content was significantly correlated with crumb firmness (r=-0.82) and with enthalpy (r=-0.65). However, crumb moisture content was specific for each type of flour and a function of flour water absorption, therefore, these correlations should be interpreted with caution. Crumb firmness and enthalpy were significantly correlated (r=0.65). Ball-milling the flour resulted in an increase in water absorption by approximately 2 percentage points and crumb moisture content by approximately 0.5 percentage points, but had no effect on either crumb firmness or enthalpy.

Last Modified: 10/25/2014
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