Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: September 9, 1998
Publication Date: N/A
Technical Abstract: Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are ubiquitous and a major source of economic loss for cattle producers worldwide. Despite four decades of vaccine use, BVDV-associated losses remain high. One of the reasons for vaccine failure is the heterogeneity that exists among BVDV isolates. Isolates of BVDV can be divided into two groups, BVDV1 and BVDV2, based on antigenic and genomic criteria. Among BVDV1 are viruses commonly used in vaccine production, diagnostic tests, and research. Both BVDV1 and BVDV2 have been isolated from fetal bovine sera, outbreaks of enteric, reproductive and respiratory disease, and mucosal disease cases. In addition, BVDV2 has been isolated from persistently infected calves born to dams vaccinated against BVDV1, and cattle that died from an acute form of BVDV termed hemorrhagic syndrome. Polymerase chain reaction tests, based on the 5' untranslated region and monoclonal antibodies can be used to differentiate BVDV1 and BVDV2. In the U.S., prevalence of BVDV1/BVDV2 approaches a 1:1 ratio in fetal calf sera and in submitted diagnostic cases. In addition to infecting cattle, BVDV1 and BVDV2 have been isolated from goats, sheep, and llamas.