Submitted to: Book Chapter
Publication Type: Government Publication
Publication Acceptance Date: January 1, 1998
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: The use of pheromones to manage pest species has proven an effective technique in agriculture and forestry. Insect pheromones that act as sex attractants are used to suppress pest populations through mating disruption. This publication is a compilation of historical and current information on the use of mating disruption to manage sparse-density populations of the gypsy moth. Emphasis is given to work, some not previously published, conducted from 1990 to 1997 under the auspices of the Gypsy Moth Mating Disruption Working Group. The Primary users of this information are state and federal action agencies, especially the USDA-Forest Service's (gypsy moth) Slow-The Spread program.
Historical and current information is presented on the use of mating disruption to manage sparse-density populations of the gypsy moth. The biology of mating disruption of the gypsy moth, and pre- 1989 studies relating to initial developments of application technology, is reviewed, and year-by-year results of studies conducted by the Gypsy Moth Mating Disruption Working Group is presented. In 1989-97, 31 generally successful (based on subsequent-year pheromone trapping) operational projects were conducted 5 states (= 51,719 acres). From 1991-1997, plastic flake and bead pheromone release systems were evaluated in aerial application studies in replicated plots and characterized for particle-size distribution, release rate, residual activity, ease of application, deposition, and efficacy under field conditions. A dose-response study (1992), a reduced-disparlure dose study (1993), an increased-disparlure dose study (1994), a second-year-effects study (1995), a tank-mix study comparing candidate adjuvants (1996), and a flake distribution study (1997), have all contributed to current (1998) formulation, dose, and usage-pattern protocol recommendations by the USDA.