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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Evaluation of Oral, Subcutaneous, and Nasal Administration of Salmonella Enteritidis (Se)-Immune Lumphokines on the Potentiation of a Protective Heterophilic Inflammatory Response to Se in Day-Old Chickens

item Kogut, Michael
item Genovese, Kenneth - TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY
item Moyes, Rita - TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY
item Stanker, Larry

Submitted to: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 9, 1997
Publication Date: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Poultry products have been shown to be contaminated with Salmonella and food safety has become a major concern to the industry. We have been developing a way to block the entrance of Salmonella into the baby chicks body. When we treat baby chicks with proteins from immune cells of other chickens that have had Salmonella, these proteins protect the new chicks from Salmonella invasion. The objective of this experiment was to determine the easiest and cheapest way to give these proteins to baby chicks. This experiment shows that giving the proteins in the mouth, as a spray, or as an injection in the skin will all give excellent protection to the baby chicks against Salmonella invasion. These results are important to the poultry industry because we have shown that we can protect baby chicks with immune proteins and these proteins can be given easily and cheaply to the baby chicks.

Technical Abstract: We have reported that the prophylactic administration of T cell supernatants derived from Salmonella enteritidis (SE)-immune chickens (ILK) have a favorable effect in controlling salmonellosis in neonatal poultry. Experimentally, we have used intraperitoneal (IP) injection for administering the ILK. However, this method is neither easy, practical, nor economical for the poultry industry. Here, we evaluated the effectiveness of oral (PO), intranasal (IN), and subcutaneous (SC) administration of ILK for ease of delivery, induction of protective resistance against SE organ invasion, and the ability to activate peripheral blood heterophils in day-old chickens. Delivery of ILK PO, IN, and SC significantly (p<0.01) increased the resistance of day-old chickens to SE organ invasion at a level of protection equivalent to that induced by the IP route. Administration of a comparable protein control (bovine serum albumin) by the three routes induced no protective effect against SE organ invasion. A significant increase was found in the number of circulating heterophils within 4 h of administration of the ILK by all routes. Additionally, the function of the heterophils from ILK-treated birds was compared with that of the control cells in adherence, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis assays. The heterophils from birds given ILK IP, SC, PO, or IN had significantly (p<0.01) increased functional activities when compared to the heterophils from the control birds. These studies indicate that the delivery of ILK by either oral or parenteral routes can be used by the poultry industry, to confer protection to chickens against SE organ invasion by potentiating the systemic heterophilic innate response.

Last Modified: 4/22/2015