Submitted to: Avian Diseases
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: June 7, 1997
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Mycotoxins are poisons produced by molds that sometimes grow on grains or in livestock and poultry feeds. Poultry are sensitive to many mycotoxins and the consumption of mycotoxin-contaminated feed costs the poultry industry millions of dollars annually. Two mycotoxins [deoxynivalenol (DON) and moniliformin] can occur singly or in combination in grains or feeds. In the present study, broiler chicks were fed diets containing these toxins to determine the toxic effects on the chicks. Moniliformin singly, but not DON, produced toxicity and the combination of toxins was not more than the additive effect of feeding each toxin singly. This is an important observation because these two mycotoxins could occur simultaneously I poultry feedstuffs, and that such occurrence will not lead to an increased risk other than the disease that would have been predicted on the basis of what is known about each toxin's individual toxicity.
The effects of feeding diets containing 100 mg moniliformin (M)/kg of feed from culture material and 16 mg deoxynivalenol (DON)/kg of feed from naturally contaminated wheat were evaluated in growing broiler chicks from 1 day to 21 days of age. Body weight, body weight gain, and feed consumption were decreased by feeding M and M plus DON diets. Relative heart weight was increased by the M diet, whereas relative weights of proventriculus, gizzard, and heart were increased by the M plus DON diet. Feeding the M diet increased alanine transferase activity and creatinine concentration and decreased mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The M and DON diet decreased glucose, hemoglobin, and MCHC. Histopathological lesions from the M diet were limited to the kidney and consisted of extensive renal tubular epithelial degeneration, plus luminal mineralization. A moderation of the severity of lesions were seen in the tissues of the M plus DON fed chicks and consisted of generally mild tubular epithelial degeneration. None of the parameters measured were affected by the DON diet. Results indicate additive or less than additive toxicity for most parameters when chicks were fed diets containing 100 mg M plus 16 mg DON/kg of feed. Although the concentration of M in this study was high compared with that reported for feedstuffs, additional information on the occurrence and toxicity of M will need to be collected in order to assess the importance of M to the poultry industry.