Submitted to: Cereal Foods World
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 6, 1997
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Dietary fat not only contributes to the flavor and palatability of foods but also to high calorie content. Previous research has shown that partial or complete fat replacement caused foods to have loss of flavor and/or inferior texture. A new fat and flour replacer processed from corn or oat fiber, known as Z-Trim, was evaluated for its effects on the flavor and texture characteristics of a baked product and a meat product. A trained sensory panel reported that replacing either 50-100 percent of the fat in addition to 50 percent of the flour with the addition of Z-Trim corn fiber significantly improved the texture characteristics of moistness, density and cohesiveness compared to a normal fat product. A 3-oz portion of the normal brownie had 350 calories and 24g fat; but a 3-oz brownie with 100 percent fat replacement and 50 percent flour replacement that contained Z-Trim had 175 calories and 3g fat. Fat content of 89 percent fat-free ground beef was reduced to 93 percent fat-free with Z-Trim oat fiber. Sensory analysis of flavor and texture of the reduced fat patties showed slight decreases in beef and fatty flavors and increases in texture characteristics of tenderness and juiciness. A 3-oz cooked patty without fat replacement had 190 calories and 10g fat; but a 3-oz cooked patty with Z-Trim had 140 calories and 6g fat. The Z-Trim fat and flour replacer has potential to not only reduce the calorie content of high fat foods but also improve the texture of of lower fat foods.
Technical Abstract: To determine the effects of partial replacement of fat and flour in foods with Z-Trim corn and oat fibers, brownies and ground beef patties containing Z-Trim were evaluated for flavor and texture characteristics. A cake-like brownie formulation containing 26% fat (control) was prepared with 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% fat replacement using four levels of Z-Trim corn fiber at 0.18%, 0.36%, 0.55%, and 0.73% by weight of total ingredients. Flour was also replaced at the 0% and 50% levels. The calories/g of brownie for the full-fat product was 3.4 compared to 1.6 for the brownie with 100% fat replacement and 50% flour replacement. A trained, experienced analytical sensory panel reported that replacing either 50% or 75% or 100% of the fat in addition to 50% of the flour with the addition of Z-Trim corn fiber significantly improved the texture characteristics of moistness, density and cohesiveness compared to the control. The fat content of 89% fat-free ground beef was reduced to 93% fat-free with Z-Trim oat fiber or a Z-Trim/Oatrim 5 blend at 1% and 1.5% addition by weight with 10% water. Sensory analysis of flavor and texture of the beef patties showed slight decreases in beef and fatty flavors and increases in texture characteristics of tenderness and juiciness.