Submitted to: American Society of Agronomy Monograph Series
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: October 14, 1996
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Clovers and other forage legumes are used for hay or in pastures for animal production throughout the world. Nematodes can reduce the growth of these plants or kill them. This chapter reviewed what is known about these nematodes and methods that have been tried to control nematodes on clovers and other forage legumes. There are five different types of nematodes that infect these plants. Each nematode type is described with the symptoms it causes in clovers and the importance of the nematode in suppressing plant growth. Control measures that may prevent or reduce injury by the nematodes on clovers and other forage legumes are discussed. New red and white clovers have recently been released that may help control at least one type of nematode, the root-knot nematodes, on these clovers. Other control methods developed for other crops may help control nematodes on clovers and other forage legumes.
Clovers and other forage legumes are important components of forage and pasture systems throughout the world. Nematode infection may have a significant impact on yield and persistence of forage legumes. The objective of this chapter was to review the current knowledge on nematodes infecting clovers and forage legumes other than alfalfa. Literature was reviewed on the species and races, symptoms, biology, disease complexes, and economic importance of important nematode parasites. The most important nematode parasites of clover and other forage legumes include root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.), clover cyst nematode (Heterodera trifolii), stem nematode (Ditylenchus dipsaci), lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.), and ectoparasitic and semi-endoparasitic nematodes. The usefulness of host resistance, cultural, chemical, and biological control measures on nematode parasites of these forages were discussed. The outlook for nematode control in the U.S. is good with the recent release of nematode-resistant red and white clovers, and the possible use of biological control agents and molecular biological methods developed for other crops to improve nematode control in forage legumes.