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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Registration of Forty Converted Sorghums from the Sorghum Conversion Program

Authors
item Dahlberg, Jeffery
item Rosenow, D T - TEXAS AGRIC EXP STA
item Peterson, Gary - TEXAS AGRIC EXP STA
item Clark, L E - TEXAS AGRIC EXP STA
item Miller, Fred - TEXA A&M
item Sotomayor Rios, Antonio
item Hamburger, A - TEXAS AGRIC EXP STA
item Madera, Pablo
item Quiles, Adolfo
item Woodfin, C A - TEXAS AGRIC EXP STA

Submitted to: Crop Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 30, 1997
Publication Date: N/A

Interpretive Summary: In 1995, 3.3 million hectares of sorghum were harvested in the United States with an average yield of 3780 kg/ha and an approximate farm value of over $1.0 billion. In the United States, sorghum grain is used primarily for livestock feed and the vegetative parts for green chop, hay, silage, and pasture, while in other parts of the world, sorghum is used primarily as food. Improvement of sorghum can only be accomplished by tapping into the genetic variability of exotic germplasm found in the tropical regions of the world. This can be accomplished through the conversion of exotic, tropical germplasm. Forty sources of sorghum germplasm, converted to early-maturing, combine-height, were released jointly by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS in 1996. The converted lines were developed through a backcross procedure in which tall, late-maturing tropical varieties or cultivars were converted to early-maturing, combine-height sorghums. This collection represent new sources of germplasm from the World Sorghum Collection and are of a height and maturity to make them readily usable in the United States and other temperate-zone areas of the world. These materials contain new sources of desirable traits such as disease and insect resistance, drought resistance, and elite food types, and should be useful germplasm to breeders and other sorghum researchers in developing improved lines and hybrids.

Technical Abstract: In 1995, 3.3 million hectares of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] were harvested in the United States with an average yield of 3780 kg/ha and an approximate farm value of over $1.0 billion. Sorghum is used primarily in the United States as an animal feed and its utilization is limited by a fairly narrow genetic base. Improvement can only be accomplished by tapping into the genetic variability of exotic germplasm found in the tropical regions of the world. Forty sources of sorghum germplasm converted in the Sorghum Conversion Program, conducted jointly by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS, were released in 1996. Conversion was accomplished by a crossing and backcrossing program during the winter in Puerto Rico using favorable short-day photoperiods with selection for early, short genotypes within segregating populations under long-day, summer conditions at Chillicothe, Texas. All converted lines received four backcrosses to the original exotic variety. The nonrecurrent parent used in these crosses was an early-maturing, 4-dwarf 'Martin' B-line, 'BTx406', of U. S. origin. Exotic varieties were used as male parents in all crosses and backcrosses until the third backcross when they were used as the female in order to recover the original cytoplasm in the converted line. This collection represents new sources of germplasm from the World Sorghum Collection, and is of a height and maturity to make them readily usable in the United States and other temperate-zone areas of the world. These materials contain new sources of desirable traits such as disease and insect resistance, drought resistance, and elite food types, and should be useful germplasm to breeders and other sorghum researchers in developing improved lines and

Last Modified: 12/21/2014
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