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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Individual and Combined Effects of Fumonisins Present in Fusarium Moniliforme Culture Material and T-2 Toxin Or Deoxynivalenol Present in Wheat in Broiler Chicks

Authors
item Kubena, Leon
item HARVEY, ROGER
item Buckley, Sandra
item Rottinghaus, George - UNIV. OF MISSOURI

Submitted to: Poultry Science Association Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: April 1, 1996
Publication Date: N/A

Technical Abstract: The individual and combined effects of feeding diets containing 300 mg fumonisin B1 (FB1), and 5 mg T-2 toxin (T-2)/kg of diet or 15 mg dioxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin from naturally contaminated wheat)/kg of diet were evaluated in two studies in male broiler chicks from d of hatch to 19 or 21 d of age. When compared with controls, body weight gains were reduced 18-20% by FB1, 18% by T-2, 2% by DON, 32% by the FB1 and T-2 combination and 19% by the FB1 and DON combination. The efficiency of fed utilization was adversely affected by FB1 with or without T-2 or DON. Mortality ranged from none for the controls to 11% for the FB1 and DON combination. Relative weights of the liver and kidney were significantly increased by FB1 with or without T-2 or DON. Serum concentrations of cholesterol were increased in chicks fed FB1 with or without T-2 or DON. Activities of aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma glutamyltransferase were increased in chicks fed FB1 at 300 mg/kg alone and in combination with T-2 or DON, indicating possible tissue damage and leakage of the enzymes into the blood. Results indicate additive toxicity when chicks are fed diets containing 300 mg FB1 and 5 mg T-2/kg of diet and less than additive toxicity when chicks are fed 300 mg FB1 and 15 mg DON/kg of diet. Of importance to the poultry industry is the fact that toxic synergy was not observed for either of these toxin combinations and the likelihood of encountering FB1 at this concentration in finished feed is small. However, under field conditions with additional stress factors, the toxicity of these mycotoxins could be altered to adversely affect the health and performance of poultry.

Last Modified: 7/28/2014
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