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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Chemical Composition of Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus L.) Seed Oil

Authors
item Mohamed, Ali - VIRGINIA STATE UNIVERSITY
item Bhardwaj, Harbans - VIRGINIA STATE UNIVERSITY
item Hamama, Anwar - VIRGINIA STATE UNIVERSITY
item WEBBER, CHARLES

Submitted to: Journal Of Industrial Crops And Products
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: April 23, 1995
Publication Date: N/A

Interpretive Summary: The potential for using kenaf seeds as a source of edible oil is often overlooked when considering kenaf as a fiber and feed crop. The purpose of this research was to determine the quantity of quality of kenaf seed oil from nine varieties. Kenaf seeds contained a variety of oils, fatty acids, phospholipids and sterols. Differences occurred in percentage composition among the nine kenaf varieties. The high seed oil content and similarity to cottonseed suggests kenaf seed oil may be used as a edible oil. Differences in seed composition among varieties indicates a potential for genetic improvement for oil content. This research suggests that kenaf seed, as a byproduct may meet renewable industrial and nutritional needs within the United States.

Technical Abstract: Seeds from nine kenaf genotypes (Cubano, Everglades 41, Everglades 71, GR2563, Guatemale 48, Indian, 178-18RS-10, Tainung #1, and Tainung #2) were evaluated for oil, fatty acid, phospholipid, and sterol content. Oil content ranged from 21.4 to 26.4% with a mean of 23.7%. Total phospholipids ranged from 3.9 to 10.3% of the oil, with a mean of 6.0%. Mean sterol percent was 0.9 and ranged from 0.6% of the total oil for 178- 18RS-10 accession to 1.2% for Everglades 71. Palmitic 20.1% of the total fatty acids), oleic (29.2%), and linoleic (45.9%) were the major fatty acids, and palmitoleic (1.6%), linolenic (0.7%), and stearic (3.5%) were the minor components. Medium (C**12-C**14) and long (C**22-C**24) chain fatty acids were less than 1%. Sphingomyelin (4.42% of the total phospholipids), phosphatidyl ethanolamine (12.8%), phosphatidyl choline (21.9%), phosphatidyl serine (2.9%), phosphatidyl inositol (2.7%), lysophosphatidyl choline (5.3%), phosphatidyl glycerol (8.9%), phosphatidi acid (4.9%), and cardiolipin (3.6%) were identified in the nine genotypes. B-sitosterol (72.3% of the total sterols), campsterol (9.9%) and stigmasterol (6.07%) were prevalent among kenaf genotypes. Kenaf's relatively high oil content and its similarity to cottonseed oil suggest that the soil oil may be used as a source of edible oil. The variation among genotypes indicates potential for genetic improvement in oil yield and quality.

Last Modified: 7/28/2014
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