Submitted to: Archives of Virology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: March 23, 1996
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is the most economically important viral pathogen of beef and dairy cattle in the United States. Many strains of the virus exist, and most of those strains are common in cattle herds, infecting animals of all ages. Current vaccines for BVDV are effective, but have either undesirable side effects or are limited in duration of protection after vaccination. A new experimental vaccine was made from a small part of the virus. Undesirable side effects were not seen after use of this vaccine. Calves that received the vaccine were solidly protected from disease induced by some BVDV. However, the new vaccine was only partially effective against other BVDV. Those are encouraging findings and suggest that a better vaccine can be made by including more viral parts. Efforts to develop vaccines that include parts from several BVDV are in progress. This work has the potential to provide a vaccine that will save beef and dairy producers several million dollars annually. Consumers are the eventual beneficiaries of this vaccine through the ensured availability of economical and wholesome meat and dairy products.
Technical Abstract: Calves were vaccinated with a C-terminally truncated baculovirus expression product of E2 from the Singer strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus. The expressed E2 was glycosylated and retained antigenic authenticity. After induction of viral neutralizing antibody, the calves were challenge exposed with either the homologous Singer strain of virus or with the heterologous 890 strain of virus. Vaccine-induced antibody titer of greater than or equal to 2 protected calves from clinical signs of disease induced by homologous viral challenge exposure. An antibody titer of greater than or equal to 512 reduced replication of homologous challenge virus to a level which did not induce an increase in serologic titer of viral neutralizing antibody. Vaccine-induced antibody titer of less than or equal to 4,096 did not protect calves from systemic spread of virus or from disease after challenge exposure with heterologous bovine viral diarrhea virus.