Submitted to: Crop Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 1, 1996
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Ten pairs of alloplasmic (alien cytoplasm) and euplasmic (normal cytoplasm) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasms were developed in Nugaines. Nugaines was a widely adapted soft white winter wheat grown extensively during 1966 to 1981. Ten alien donor cytoplasms were substituted for Nugaines normal cytoplasm. The cytoplasms were derived from six species of Aegilops, two Triticum macha, one Triticum turgidum and one Haynaldia villosa. Detailed agronomic and quality comparisons were made between the paired alloplasmic and euplasmic members of the 10 donor sets. There appeared to be limited potential for heterotic effects resulting from nuclear vs. cytoplasmic interactions in this material. Importantly only three cytoplasms caused negative effects on grain yield and its components indicating that it would be possible to exploit seven of the alien cytoplasms in cultivated wheat to achieve cytoplasmic diversity and lower wheat's genetic vulnerability to potentially destructive plant pathogens. These germplasms were jointly released by USDA-ARS and the Washington Agricultural Research Center in 1994.
Technical Abstract: Ten pairs of alloplasmic and euplasmic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasms were developed in the soft white winter (SWW) cultivar 'Nugaines'. Alien donor cytoplasms substituted for Nugaines T. aestivum cytoplasm included 6 Aegilops sp., 2 T. macha, 1 T. turgidum, and 1 Haynaldia villosa. The Aegilops species were Ae. squarrosa, Ae. ventricosa, Ae. cylindrica, Ae. variabilis, Ae. uniaristata and Ae. juvenalis. Nugaines was a widely adapted SWW cultivar grown extensively in the U.S. Pacific Northwest during 1966 to 1981. The germplasm were jointly released by USDA-ARS and the Washington Agricultural Research Center in 1994. Alloplasmic vs. euplasmic comparisons were made for the 10 donor sets. Donor cytoplasms having the greatest negative effects on grain yield and its components were T. macha -9, Ae. juvenalis and Ae. uniaristata. Donors Ae. squarrosa and H. villosa were only slightly deleterious to yield and related components while the T. macha-8 cytoplasm had positive or neutral effects. These germplasms have potential use for various research purposes including dihaploid breeding, attaining cytoplasmic diversity, comparing cytoplasmic organelles, facilitating wide crosses, studying wheat evolution, and nuclear/cytoplasmic heterotic effects.