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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Title: Registration of Fifty Converted Sorghums from the Sorghum Conversion Program

Authors
item Rosenow, D T - TEXAS AGRIC EXP STA
item Dahlberg, Jeffery
item Peterson, G C - TEXAS AGRIC EXP STA
item Clark, L E - TEXAS AGRIC EXP STA
item Miller, F R - TEXAS A&M
item Sotomayor Rios, Antonio
item Hamburger, A J - TEXAS AGRIC EXP STA
item Madera, Pablo
item Quiles, Adolfo
item Woodfin, C A - TEXAS AGRIC EXP STA

Submitted to: Crop Science Congress
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 30, 1996
Publication Date: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Sorghum varieties and hybrids grown in the United States are restricted in their use and improvement by a fairly narrow genetic base. Only a small fraction of the total genetic variability within sorghum is available for use in the temperate regions of the world; therefore, the Sorghum Conversion Program was implemented in 1964. Fifty sources of sorghum germplasm converted to early-maturing, combine-height, conducted jointly by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS, were released in 1995. The converted lines were developed through a backcross procedure in which tall, late-maturing tropical varieties or cultivars were converted to early-maturing, combine-height sorghums. They represent new sources of germplasm from the World Sorghum Collection and are of a height and maturity to make them readily usable in the United States and other temperate-zone areas of the world. These materials should contain new sources of desirable traits such as disease and insect resistance, drought resistance, and improved grain quality, and should be useful germplasm to breeders and other sorghum researchers in developing improved lines and hybrids.

Technical Abstract: Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] varieties and hybrids grown in the United States are restricted in their use and improvement by a fairly narrow genetic base. Fifty sources of sorghum germplasm converted in the Sorghum Conversion Program, conducted jointly by the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS, were released in 1995. Conversion is accomplished by a crossing and backcrossing program during the winter in Puerto Rico using favorable short-day photoperiods, with selection for early, short genotypes within segregating populations under long-day, summer conditions at Chillicothe, Texas. All converted lines received four backcrosses to the original exotic variety. The exotic varieties were used as male parents in all crosses and backcrosses until the third backcross when they were used as the females in order to recover the original cytoplasm. The converted lines are nonsensitive to photoperiod, will mature normally in the United States, and are short statured. They represent new sources of germplasm from the World Sorghum Collection and are of a height and maturity to make them readily usable in the United States and other temperate-zone areas of the world. These materials should contain new sources of desirable traits such as disease and insect resistance, drought resistance, and improved grain quality, and should be useful germplasm to breeders and other sorghum researchers in developing improved lines and hybrids.

Last Modified: 10/21/2014
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