Submitted to: Journal of Food Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 13, 1994
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Meat restructuring technology allows processors to control product characteristics such as shape, color, texture, fat and moisture content, cook yield, bind strength, juiciness and flavor. Restructured meat products have commonly been prepared with salt and phosphate to facilitate binding between particles. The use of salt and phosphate in restructured meat products enhances cohesiveness, cook yield and flavor. However, salt has been associated with discoloration and rancidity development in raw restructured beef steaks. Since consumers are concerned about their salt intake because of its relationship with hypertension and the negative effects on product quality described above, this study was performed to evaluate alternatives to salt/phosphate in restructured beef steaks. Six mechanical treatments including chunking, fiberizing, slicing, chunking + slicing, slicing + water, and tenderizing each in combination with either salt with phosphate; alginate with lactate, pectate with lactate or no additives (control) were evaluated. Results of this study indicate that chunked meat or mixtures of chunked and sliced meats in combination with salt/phosphate or alginate/lactate resulted in beef steaks with acceptable physical and sensory properties. Utilization of pectate/lactate as binding ingredients was not beneficial to the quality of restructured beef. These results are of extreme importance to the institutional and military food service departments.
Beef (9-11 percent) was restructured with each of six mechanical treatments including chunking, fiberizing, slicing, chunking + slicing, slicing + water, and tenderizing each in combination with addition of 0.5 percent sodium chloride (salt)/0.5 percent phosphate, 0.5 percent Na-alginate/0.5 percent Ca-lactate, 0.5 percent Na-pectate/0.5 percent Ca-lactate, or no additives (control). Beef steaks restructured with salt/phosphate had lower (P < .05) purge losses, higher binding force and bind scores than control products. Steaks restructured with Na-alginate/Ca-lactate had lower cooking losses and higher bind scores compared to controls. The use of Na-pectate/Ca-lactate did not improve (P > 0.05) purge loss, cooking loss, binding force or sensory properties. Chunked meat or mixtures of chunked and sliced meats in combination with salt/phosphate or Na- alginate/Ca-lactate resulted in steaks with acceptable bind and textural properties.