Location: Crop Germplasm Research
Title: Registration of four cotton germplasm populations Authors
Submitted to: Journal of Plant Registrations
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: August 13, 2013
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Dwarf GP (Germplasm Population), Fiber GP, Glandless GP, and Race GP are four distinctive germplasm populations incorporating a broad range of diversity from the U.S. National Cotton Germplasm Collection into four unique sources. The Dwarf GP has four parents and is a source of germplasm with short plant heights. The Fiber GP is complex, with 24 parents, and was formed to improve cotton fiber length and strength. The Glandless GP is also complex, with 22 parents used to develop a population lacking glands and therefore gossypol which is potentially harmful to humans and some animals when ingested. The Race GP combines the variability found within 42 of the original sources used for breeding commercial cottons. A large set of individuals within each of these populations was random mated for nine generations. This mixing of genetic material has created a wide range of genetic diversity that is easily accessible and provides a useful tool for cotton improvement.
Technical Abstract: Dwarf GP (Reg. No. ______; PI ______), Fiber GP (Reg. No. ______; PI ______), Glandless GP (Reg. No. ______; PI ______), and Race GP (Reg. No. ______; PI ______) are four unique upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) germplasm populations (GP) released by the USDA-ARS. One is a four-parent, narrow-based population (Dwarf GP) developed to incorporate dwarfing genes into non-dwarf genetic backgrounds. The remaining three populations are broad-based, complex populations developed from 24 parents (Fiber GP), 22 parents (Glandless GP), and 42 parents (Race GP). The Fiber GP was developed to include potential sources of variation that would improve fiber length and strength. At the time these populations were developed, a viable glandless seed industry existed, and the Glandless GP incorporated glandless germplasm from public and private breeders. The Race GP was developed to obtain new genetic recombination events among a set of primitive race stock parents. These populations were created to recombine the variability from multiple parents into a single source from which selection can be initiated. The Glandless GP was formed by random mating for nine cycles using a bulked pollen methodology. The Dwarf GP, Fiber GP, and Race GP were formed by random mating for one cycle using a bulked pollen methodology followed by eight cycles using a male sterile. These populations possess trait specific genetic variation in addition to a wide range of non-trait specific genetic diversity resulting from multiple generations of recombination and, therefore, present breeders with useful tools for improvement of elite germplasm.