|Stalker, H -|
Submitted to: American Peanut Research and Education Society Abstracts
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: May 15, 2013
Publication Date: October 1, 2013
Citation: Stalker, H.T., Holbrook Jr, C.C. 2013. International peanut yield gains. Proc. Amer. Peanut Res. and Educ. Soc. 45:15. Interpretive Summary: not required.
Technical Abstract: Peanut is grown in more than 100 countries, with China, India, the U.S., Nigeria, and Indonesia being the largest producers. Peanut production systems range from very primitive with only hand labor and few inputs of fertilizer or chemical controls for weeds or diseases to other systems that are highly technical and mechanized. A large percentage of the crop is crushed for oil, but there is an increasing trend for small farmers to supply local markets or for family subsistence. Thus, one strategy for increasing yields will not work in all cropping systems due to constraints of labor; funds to purchase fertilizers and chemicals for weed, disease and pest controls; and the inability to acquire improved seeds by many farmers in lesser developed countries. Global peanut yields have increased during the past half century at about 1.5% year-1, in large part because of improved cultivars and production technologies. However, yields across sub-Sahara Africa remain extremely low due the lack of an agricultural infrastructure, water deficit, and lack of disease resistance in cultivars. Thus, the two greatest needs for increasing yields in the low-input systems is for cultivars to be developed with higher drought tolerance (or shorter maturity to avoid droughts), and incorporation of high levels of disease resistance. Government incentives to increase production have been a key ingredient for increasing yields and export markets in several countries such as China and Egypt. Peanut has great potential for additional yield increases at the global level, but a comprehensive production system must be put in place at the local levels to suppress constraints to achieving yield potentials.