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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: INTEGRATED ORCHARD MANAGEMENT AND AUTOMATION FOR DECIDUOUS TREE FRUIT PRODUCTION

Location: Appalachian Fruit Research Laboratory: Innovative Fruit Production, Improvement and Protection

Title: Evaluating electrophysiological and behavioral responses to volatiles for improvement of odor-baited trap-tree management of Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

Authors
item Leskey, Tracy
item Wright, Starker
item Hock, Virginia -
item Chouinard, Gerald -
item Cormier, Daniel -
item Leahy, Kathleen -
item Cooley, Daniel -
item Tuttle, Arthur -
item Eaton, Alan -
item Zhang, Aijun

Submitted to: Environmental Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: October 15, 2013
Publication Date: April 8, 2014
Citation: Leskey, T.C., Wright, S.E., Hock, V., Chouinard, G., Cormier, D., Leahy, K., Cooley, D., Tuttle, A., Eaton, A., Zhang, A. 2014. Evaluating electrophysiological and behavioral responses to volatiles for improvement of odor-baited trap-tree management of Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Environmental Entomology. 43(3):753-761.

Interpretive Summary: The plum curculio is one of the most important pests of apple and peach in eastern and central North America. In the Northeast, growers typically manage this pest in apple orchards using multiple insecticide applications. We evaluated an ‘attract and kill’ approach for managing plum curculio in apple orchards. Border row apple trees are baited with lures, the fruit volatile benzaldehyde and the aggregation pheromone of plum curculio, grandisoic acid. These trees then serve as sites where adults will aggregate and the grower can then subsequently only treat those trees rather than the entire block. While this approach works well, we attempted to improve attraction, aggregation, and retention of adult plum curculios within specific baited trap-tree canopies within apple orchards using a host plant volatile found to be highly stimulating in electroantennogram studies in the laboratory, trans-2-hexenal. We also attempted to increase aggregation using increased release rates of grandisoic acid. We found that trans-2-hexenal did not provide increased aggregation when deployed as an additional attractant within trap-trees or when conversely deployed as a repellent in trees neighboring the baited trap-tree. Additionally, increasing the release rate of grandisoic acid actually appeared to reduce overall aggregation within trap-trees and increase aggregation in nearest neighbor trees. Therefore, we believe that the standard olfactory stimuli are sufficient to provide aggregation within trap-trees, and that more emphasis should be placed on materials used to manage them after their arrival.

Technical Abstract: Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), one of the most important pests of apple in eastern and central North America, is usually managed in New England apple orchards by multiple full-block insecticide applications. Efforts to reduce insecticide inputs against plum curculio include using an ‘attract and kill’ approach: odor-baited trap-trees deployed in the perimeter row of apple orchards. In this approach, apple trees are baited with two olfactory stimuli, the fruit volatile benzaldehyde and the aggregation pheromone of plum curculio, grandisoic acid. We attempted to improve attraction, aggregation, and retention of adult plum curculios within specific baited trap-tree canopies within apple orchards using a host plant volatile found to be highly stimulating in electroantennogram (EAG) studies, trans-2-hexenal. We also attempted to increase aggregation using increased release rates of grandisoic acid. We found that trans-2-hexenal did not provide increased aggregation when deployed as an additional attractant within trap-trees or when conversely deployed as a ‘push’ component in perimeter trees lateral to the baited trap-tree. Additionally, increasing the release rate of grandisoic acid actually appeared to reduce overall aggregation within trap-trees and increase aggregation in nearest neighbor trees. Therefore, we believe that the standard olfactory stimuli are sufficient to provide aggregation within trap-trees, but that other means should be used to manage them after their arrival.

Last Modified: 10/1/2014
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