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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: CEREAL RUST FUNGI: GENETICS, POPULATION BIOLOGY, AND HOST-PATHOGEN INTERACTIONS

Location: Cereal Disease Laboratory

Title: Wheatgrass-wheat partial amphiploids as a novel source of stem rust and Fusarium head blight resistance

Authors
item Turner, Kathryn -
item Dehaan, Lee -
item JIN, YUE
item Anderson, James -

Submitted to: Crop Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 10, 2012
Publication Date: September 1, 2013
Citation: Turner, K.M., DeHaan, L.R., Jin, Y., Anderson, J.A. 2013. Wheatgrass-wheat partial amphiploids as a novel source of stem rust and Fusarium head blight resistance. Crop Science. 53:1994-2005.

Interpretive Summary: Stem rust and Fusarium head blight are two of the most important diseases of wheat. Use of disease resistant cultivars is important for successfully managing these diseases. Novel sources of resistance to these diseases are needed in order to develop resistant cultivars. Perennial wheatgrasses (Thinopyrum spp.) are recognized sources of genetic variation for annual wheat improvement, and hybrids between wheat and wheatgrasses, known as amphiploids, can increase resilience of wheat to pathogens and abiotic stress. Fifty-two wheat-wheatgrass amphiploids from several wheatgrass species crossed with the annual wheat, were screened for wheat stem rust and Fusarium head blight reaction and evaluated for winter hardiness and perenniality. Twenty-four of 48 amphiploid lines were resistant to all stem rust races screened, including Ug99 and other important races. Of the 30 amphiploid lines tested for Fusarium head blight resistance, 21 were resistant based on the percentage of infected spikelets and the percent of visually scabby kernels. Three sources each of potentially novel stem rust and uncharacterized FHB resistance were identified and may be useful for wheat improvement. Two lines showed perenniality in Minnesota and may be valuable as cold-tolerant perennial wheat germplasm. Seven lines representing two families showed potential genetic stability based on chromosome counts and seed production. The resistant sources will add to the genetic diversity of resistance to stem rust and Fusarium head blight and will be useful for wheat improvement in wheat breeding community.

Technical Abstract: Perennial wheatgrasses (Thinopyrum spp.) are recognized sources of genetic variation for annual wheat improvement. Amphiploid lines made by crossing Thinopyrum spp. and Triticum aestivum (common wheat) can increase resilience of wheat to pathogens and abiotic stress. However, lack of pairing between chromosomes of Thinopyrum and Triticum species reduces genome stability, seed set, and perenniality. Fifty-two wheat-wheatgrass amphiploids from the perennials Th. intermedium, Th. ponticum, and Th. junceum, crossed with the annuals T. aestivum, T. carthlicum, and T. turgidum, were screened for wheat stem rust (caused by Puccinia graminis) and Fusarium head blight (FHB) (caused by Fusarium graminearum) reaction and evaluated for winter hardiness and perenniality. Twenty-four of 48 amphiploid lines were resistant to all stem rust races screened, including TTKSK (syn. Ug99), TRTTF, and common US races. Of the 30 amphiploid lines point inoculated with F. graminearum, 21 were resistant based on the percentage of infected spikelets and the percent of visually scabby kernels. Three sources each of potentially novel stem rust and uncharacterized FHB resistance were identified and may be useful for wheat improvement. Two lines showed perenniality in Minnesota and may be valuable as cold-tolerant perennial wheat germplasm. Seven lines representing two families showed potential genetic stability based on chromosome counts and seed production.

Last Modified: 9/29/2014
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