Submitted to: Manual of Security Sensitive Microbes and Toxins
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: March 8, 2013
Publication Date: April 29, 2014
Citation: Afonso, C.L., Miller, P.J. 2014. Newcastle disease virus (velogens). In: Liu, D, editor. Manual of Security Sensitive Microbes and Toxins. New York, NY: CRC Press. p. 689-702. Interpretive Summary: Newcastle disease viruses circulate in wild bird species and cause Newcastle Disease in poultry in different countries worldwide. The virus is often detected in neighboring countries or in countries with extensive commercial trade with the U.S. Virulent viruses also exist in wild birds in the U.S. The introduction of virulent viruses into U.S. poultry could have serious impacts on the production and in the trade of poultry and poultry products. Here we evaluate significant aspect of the agent and the disease including: Classification of the virus and biological properties, antigenicity, transmission, and recombination. In addition a description of the clinical features of infection, pathogenesis, identification, diagnosis, treatment and prevention are included.
Technical Abstract: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is also known as avian paramyxovirus serotype-1 (APMV-1). While all NDV are referred to as APMV-1 and are of one serotype, only infections with virulent NDV (vNDV) cause Newcastle disease (ND). Newcastle disease virus strains are defined as virulent if they 1) have three or more basic amino acids in their fusion cleavage sites (position 113 to 116 of the un-cleaved fusion protein [F0]) with a phenylalanine at position 117, or 2) obtain a intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) value of > 0.7 in day-old chickens (Gallus gallus). NDV can infect over 200 species of birds and it is likely that all bird species are susceptible with mortalities of up to 100% possible in naïve birds of certain species. Newcastle disease virus is endemic in poultry in many countries of Africa and Asia, in smaller areas of Mexico, Central and South America and in cormorants in the United States (U.S.) and Canada. The virus continues to be endemic in pigeons worldwide since the third panzootic started in the 1970s in the Middle East. Infections with vNDV are reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and if detected in poultry species can lead to trade restrictions of poultry or poultry products. In 2011, 80 countries reported outbreaks of ND in poultry or wild birds. Large gaps of knowledge existing in the areas of epidemiology and evolution that limit the control of the disease. Recurrent infection of poultry and wild birds allows the maintenance of a huge reservoir for the viruses worldwide. Better control strategies that replace culling of infected birds are needed to prevent outbreaks.