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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: NEW AND EMERGING VIRAL AND BACTERIAL DISEASES OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS: DETECTION, IDENTIFICATION, AND CHARACTERIZATION

Location: Floral and Nursery Plants Research Unit

Title: First report of Nerine yellow stripe virus in Amaryllis in the United States

Authors
item Guaragna, Mary Ann
item Lamborn, Janet -
item Hammond, John
item Schadewijk, Ton Van -
item Jordan, Ramon

Submitted to: Plant Disease
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: November 30, 2012
Publication Date: January 3, 2013
Citation: Guaragna, M.A., Lamborn, J., Hammond, J., Schadewijk, T., Jordan, R.L. 2013. First report of Nerine yellow stripe virus in Amaryllis in the United States. Plant Disease. 97(10):1389.

Interpretive Summary: Ornamental flower bulbs (including true bulbs, bulbils, corms, tubers and rhizomes) are increasingly important floriculture crops. The South African native, Amaryllis belladonna, also known as belladonna lily, Jersey lily, naked lady, amarillo or March lily, is one of numerous ornamental species with the common name "lily" due to their flower shape and growth habit. Amaryllis are popular for their 6 to 10 inch trumpet-shaped colorful flowers that are borne on 1 to 2 foot stalks. Virus infection causes significant losses in many crops, including ornamental plants. In January, 2011, a home gardener in California observed mosaic symptoms on the leaves of Amaryllis belladonna growing in her garden. In a collaborative effort between USDA scientists, a US agri-diagnostic company, and a scientist from a Netherlands flower bulb inspection service, we were able to determine, using molecular and serological detection tools, that the disease-causing virus is an isolate of Nerine yellow stripe virus (NeYSV). NeYSV has previously been reported in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Australia, and New Zealand. The previously described NeYSV isolates from the Netherlands and New Zealand were shown to be more closely related to each other than to the US isolate. Based on the results of this research, we have identified this virus as a US isolate of NeYSV called NeYSV-US. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Nerine yellow stripe virus in the United States. Development of serological and molecular tools specific to this US isolate is in progress. These reagents and tools should enable state and federal regulatory officials to make timely and appropriate recommendations in safeguarding the movement of horticultural products into and throughout the U.S.

Technical Abstract: Ornamental flower bulbs (including true bulbs, bulbils, corms, tubers and rhizomes) are increasingly important floriculture crops. Amaryllis is a small genus of flowering bulbs, with two species. The South African native, Amaryllis belladonna, also known as belladonna lily, Jersey lily, naked lady, amarillo or March lily, is one of numerous ornamental species with the common name "lily" due to their flower shape and growth habit. Amaryllis are popular for their 6 to 10 inch trumpet-shaped colorful flowers that are borne on 1 to 2 foot stalks. In January, 2011, a home gardener in California observed mosaic symptoms on the leaves of Amaryllis belladonna growing in her garden. Samples tested positive for the presence of Potyvirus in a reverse transcription (RT)-PCR screen using universal potyvirus primers. Electron microscopy of symptomatic leaves confirmed the presence of filamentous potyvirus-like particles. The RT-PCR amplicon was cloned and sequenced; the 1,616-bp consensus sequence was deposited in GenBank (Accession No. JX865782). NCBI BLAST analysis of the consensus sequence revealed highest identities with isolates of Nerine yellow stripe virus (NeYSV; family Potyviridae, genus Potyvirus). Pair-wise analyses of the 261 amino acid sequence of the predicted coat protein confirmed the identity of this virus as a unique isolate of NeYSV. Serological analysis of coat protein expressing clones in ELISA and Western Blot analysis using a potyvirus broad-spectrum reacting monoclonal antibody PTY-2 and a NeYSV-specific rabbit antiserum resulted in positive reactions. NeYSV has previously been reported in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Australia, and New Zealand. Based on the results of electron microscopy, RT-PCR, nucleotide and amino acid identity, and serological reactivity, we identify this virus as a US isolate of NeYSV, NeYSV-US. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Nerine yellow stripe virus in the United States. Development of antisera specific to this US isolate is in progress.

Last Modified: 12/18/2014