Submitted to: Bakery Products: Science and Technology
Publication Type: Book / Chapter
Publication Acceptance Date: September 19, 2012
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Obesity is epidemic in Western countries. Bread contributes a significant amount of calories to Western diets and the amount of cereal, fat and sugar intake has increased during the past 20 years. The chapter focuses on new hypothesis such as the role of gut microbiota and inflammation related to obesity and metabolic diseases and how the constituents of breads such as fiber, phenolic compounds, and starch affect the microbiota and physiology.
Wheat bread has been and continues to be an important source of caloric energy and protein for the people of many continents for thousands of years. In recent years bread, mostly white wheat bread, has also contributed to, but in its whole grain forms may also ameliorate the chronic diseases, associated with obesity. Therefore this chapter focuses on the physiological impact of bread composition and processing on obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Recent research has also suggested that chronic low grade inflammation, due to passage of intestinal bacterial fragments into the body, is a cause of chronic obesity related diseases and perhaps initiates obesity itself. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, phenolic substances associated with fiber, resistant starch, amylose content, and processing affect digestibility, rate of absorption, intestinal tight barrier function, bile acid excretion, fat excretion, blood cholesterol, blood glucose, blood insulin, and insulin resistance.