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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Processing Technologies to Prevent Weight Gain and Obesity Related Metabolic Diseases

Location: Healthy Processed Foods Research

Title: In Vitro bile acid binding of kale, mustard greens, broccoli, cabbage and green bell pepper improves with microwave cooking

Authors
item Kahlon, Talwinder
item Milczarek, Rebecca
item Chiu, Mei Chen

Submitted to: Vegetos: An International Journal of Plant Research
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: August 6, 2012
Publication Date: December 21, 2012
Citation: Kahlon, T.S., Milczarek, R.R., Chiu, M.M. 2012. In Vitro bile acid binding of kale, mustard greens, broccoli, cabbage and green bell pepper improves with microwave cooking. Vegetos: An International Journal of Plant Research. 25(2):29-36.

Interpretive Summary: Bile acid binding capacity has been related to cholesterol-lowering potential of foods and food fractions. Lowered bile acids results in reduced fat absorption and cholesterol utilization to synthesize bile. Secondary bile acids have been associated with increased the risk of cancer. Bile acid binding potential has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease as well as that of cancer. Microwave cooking with no added water significantly improved in vitro bile acid binding of kale, mustard greens, broccoli and cabbage compared with microwave cooking with added water or raw (uncooked). Microwave cooking with no added water resulted in bile acid binding measured on a dry matter basis relative to cholestyramine of 13% for kale and mustard greens, 9% for broccoli and collard greens, 4% for cabbage, and 2% for green bell pepper. Microwave cooking with no added water should be used for kale, mustard greens, broccoli and cabbage; for collard greens and green bell pepper microwave with added water as the cooking method. These green/leafy vegetables, when consumed regularly after microwave cooking would promote a healthy lifestyle, keep dietary fat low, and have the potential to lower the risk of premature degenerative diseases.

Technical Abstract: Bile acid binding potential of foods and food fractions has been related to lowering the risk of heart disease and that of cancer. Sautéing or steam cooking has been observed to significantly improve bile acid binding of green/leafy vegetables. It was hypothesized that microwave cooking could improve the bile acid binding of various vegetables. Microwave cooking with no added water resulted in bile acid binding measured on a dry matter basis relative to cholestyramine of 13% for kale and mustard greens, 9% for broccoli and collard greens, 4% for cabbage, and 2% for green bell pepper. These results point to the significantly different (P = 0.05) health promoting potential of kale = mustard greens > broccoli = collard greens > cabbage > green bell pepper. Microwave cooking with no added water significantly improved in vitro bile acid binding of kale, mustard greens, broccoli and cabbage compared with microwave cooking with added water or raw (uncooked). For green bell pepper, binding values were similar when microwave cooked with or without added water and significantly higher than uncooked. In the case of collard greens, bile acid binding values were similar for raw or microwave cooked with added water and were significantly lowered by microwave cooking with no added water. Microwave cooking with no added water should be used for kale, mustard greens, broccoli and cabbage; for collard greens and green bell pepper microwave with added water as the cooking method. These green/leafy vegetables, when consumed regularly after microwave cooking would promote a healthy lifestyle, keep dietary fat low, and have the potential to lower the risk of premature degenerative diseases.

Last Modified: 8/22/2014