Location: Vegetable Crops Research Unit
Title: A century of potato breeding: improvement, diversification, and diversity Authors
Submitted to: Potato Association of America Proceedings
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: March 28, 2012
Publication Date: August 13, 2012
Citation: Bethke, P.C., Jansky, S.H., Hansey, C., De Jong, W., Douches, D., Buell, C.R. 2012. A century of potato breeding: improvement, diversification, and diversity [abstract]. Potato Association of America Proceedings. Paper No. 031. Technical Abstract: Breeding within potato has relied almost entirely on phenotypic selection and little is known of the underlying genetic elements being acted upon. To characterize the effects of this selection on phenotypic and genotypic diversity within cultivated potato, the SolCAP 8300 Infinium SNP chip was utilized on a panel of 320 clones containing release dates as early as 1853 and representative of major market classes, diploid breeding lines, genetic stocks, and wild species. A subset of the clones was evaluated in replicated yield trials in Wisconsin and New York. Diversification between market classes was observed for traits under selective pressure, such as tuber sucrose in chip processing clones. In contrast, market class diversification was not observed for traits of universal importance such as yield. Across the panel, little change in phenotype was observed for most traits over the century of breeding. However, within market classes, improvement over time was evident (i.e. chip color in chip processing clones). Population structure analysis identified four subpopulations within the panel, with chip processing clones, wild species, and genetic stocks grouping separately from the other cultivated potato clones. Additionally, pair-wise kinship estimates revealed clear separation of the market classes as well as two distinct sub groups within the chip processing germplasm. While diversification and improvement has occurred through phenotypic selection, understanding the genetic basis of traits will allow for more rapid improvement to occur over the next century of potato breeding.