Submitted to: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 25, 2012
Publication Date: October 5, 2012
Citation: Looft, T.P., Levine, U.Y., Stanton, T.B. 2012. Cloacibacillus porcorum sp. nov., a mucin-degrading bacterium from the swine intestinal tract and emended description of the genus Cloacibacillus. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 63:1960-1966. Interpretive Summary: Bacteria that colonize the intestinal tissue (mucosa) are particularly important for animal health because they are in direct contact with the host. Strain CL-84Tis a novel mucin degrading bacterium, isolated from the swine intestinal tract mucosa. CL-84T belongs to the recently described Synergistetes phylum which has been identified in a diverse range of anaerobic environments, including some human infections. Cells ferment amino acids and some mucin sugars, and yield products (butyrate)that may benefit the host. Naming and characterizing new bacterial species from the pig intestinal tract are important for future studies on their roles in animal health. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a member of the Phylum Synergistetes that utilizes mucin as its sole source of carbon.
Technical Abstract: A novel anaerobic, mesophilic, amino-acid-fermenting bacterium, designated strain CL-84T, was isolated from the swine intestinal tract on mucin-based media. The bacterium had curved-rod cells (0.8-1.2 µm x 3.5-5.0 µm), stained Gram negative, and was non-motile with no evidence of spores. CL-84T produces acetate, propionate, formate and butyrate as the end products of metabolism when grown on serine. Optimum growth occurred at 39 degree C and pH 6.5. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH, iso-C17:0, and C16:0, distinguishing CL-84T from closely related species. The G+C content of the DNA was 55.1 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that CL-84T had sequence similarity with characterized genera within the Phylum Synergistetes, Family Synergistaceae. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CL-84T was related, but distinct from Cloacibacillus evryensis. Based on these findings, we propose that strain CL-84T represents a new species of the genus Cloacibacillus. We further propose the name Cloacibacillus porcorum be designated for this species.