ENHANCING ANIMAL WELL-BEING, IMMUNOCOMPETENCE, AND PERFORMANCE IN SWINE AND BEEF CATTLE
Location: Livestock Issues Research
Title: Impact of water and feed deprivation on physiological parameters in steers
Submitted to: Journal of Animal Science Supplement
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: March 14, 2012
Publication Date: June 25, 2012
Citation: Daniel, J.A., Walz, P.H., Carroll, J.A., Elsasser, T.H., Whitlock, B.K. 2012. Impact of water and feed deprivation on physiological parameters in steers [abstract]. Journal of Animal Science. 90:8(E-Suppl. 3).
A report in rats demonstrated that dehydration as the result of 8 d of water deprivation increased leakage of endotoxin from the intestine (Zurovsky and Barbiro, 2000 Experimental and toxicologic pathology 52:37-42). Given the large number of gram negative bacteria in the rumen of cattle, a much shorter period of water deprivation may result in increased leakage of endotoxin. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of water and feed deprivation on physiologic parameters in steers. Holstein steers (n=4) fitted with indwelling jugular and hepatic vein cannulas received a 72 h period of water and feed deprivation followed by reintroduction of water and feed for a 24 h period (96 h total) or a 96 h period with ad libitum water and hay access (control) in a switch back design with a 3-wk wash-out period between repetitions. Blood samples were collected and rectal temperatures (RT) were recorded every 6 h for a total of 96 h. Body weights were recorded every 12 h. Data were tested for effects of treatment, time, treatment*time interaction and replication using procedures for repeated measures with JMP software (version 7; SAS Institute Inc.). Water and feed deprivation increased packed cell volume at 30, 54, 60, and 66 h relative to control steers (P < 0.05). Total protein in the serum was increased at 48, 54, 66, 72, and 78 h in water deprived steers compared to control steers (P < 0.05). The average body weight of water and feed deprived steers was less than control steers at 36, 48, 60, and 84 h (P < 0.05), and percent of body weight loss was greater in water and feed deprived steers at 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, and 84 h than control steers (P < 0.05). Rectal temperature of water and feed deprived steers was lower than control steers at 6, 12, and 66 h, and RT of water and feed deprived steers was higher than control steers at 72 h (P < 0.05). The effect of water and feed deprivation on circulating metabolites, cytokines and endotoxin will be determined in subsequent laboratory analyses. However, these results suggest that water and feed deprivation negatively impact steers before typical indicators of dehydration (packed cell volume and total protein) are altered.