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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service


Location: Mosquito and Fly Research Unit

Title: Ground ULV and thermal fog applications against Phlebotomine sand fly vectors of Leishmania in a hot arid environment in western Kenya

item Britch, Seth
item Linthicum, Kenneth
item Aldridge, Robert
item Walker, Todd -
item Farooq, Muhammad -
item Clark, Jeffrey -
item Bast, Joshua -
item Gordon, Scott -
item Logan, Thomas -
item Chepchieng, Clifford -
item Ngere, Francis -
item Opondo, Vitalice -
item Ng'onga, Daniel -
item Ooko, Fredrick -

Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: February 1, 2012
Publication Date: March 1, 2012
Citation: Britch, S.C., Linthicum, K., Aldridge, R.L., Walker, T.W., Farooq, M., Clark, J.W., Bast, J.L., Gordon, S.W., Logan, T.M., Chepchieng, C., Ngere, F., Opondo, V., Ng'Onga, D., Ooko, F. 2012. Ground ULV and thermal fog applications against Phlebotomine sand fly vectors of Leishmania in a hot arid environment in western Kenya. Meeting Abstract. p.28.

Technical Abstract: Phlebotomine sand fly vectors of Leishmania continue to threaten US military operations in Africa, Southwest Asia, and the Middle East. Ultra-low volume (ULV) and/or thermal fog pesticide dispersal are potentially effective against sand flies, but operational guidance is thinly based on mosquito control in temperate-tropical environments. Few studies have examined performance of ULV or thermal fog against mosquitoes in hot-arid environments, and no studies have investigated ULV or thermal fog to control sand flies in any environment. Sand fly bionomics are poorly understood, so timing and positioning of applications may not be optimal, and susceptibility of sand flies to US EPA-registered pesticides labeled for aerosol application is poorly known, so configuration of dispersal equipment and pesticide also may not be optimal. We conducted a series of large field experiments in a hot-arid region in western Kenya endemic for phlebotomine vectors and Leishmania using a range of pesticides and ULV and thermal fog devices in various configurations. We evaluated configurations in a variety of meteorological conditions against natural sand fly populations and caged colony-reared sand flies. We found both ULV and thermal fog applications to be highly effective against sand flies, but efficacy was not homogeneous among configurations or weather conditions. These initial findings will form the basis for developing effective operational guidance for sand fly control and further research.

Last Modified: 7/26/2016
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