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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: Microbial Interactions and Management Approaches to Reduce Pathogenic Bacteria in Poultry

Location: Food and Feed Safety Research

Title: A survey of bacterial diversity from successive life stages of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) by using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing

Authors
item Zheng, Longyu -
item CRIPPEN, TAWNI
item Singh, Baneshwar -
item Tarone, Aaron -
item Dowd, Scot -
item Yu, Ziniu -
item Wood, Thomas -
item Tomberlin, Jeffery -

Submitted to: Journal of Medical Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: January 24, 2013
Publication Date: May 14, 2013
Repository URL: http://handle.nal.usda.gov/10113/57307
Citation: Zheng, L., Crippen, T.L., Singh, B., Tarone, A.M., Dowd, S., Yu, Z., Wood, T.K., Tomberlin, J.K. 2013. A survey of bacterial diversity from successive life stages of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) by using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Journal of Medical Entomology. 50:647-658.

Interpretive Summary: Black Soldier flies (BSF) are used in waste management to reduce the volume of animal wastes, pathogenic bacteria, and nuisance odors. An appreciation of fly-associated bacterial diversity is not known and is needed to understand pathogen colonization on animal waste in the presence of BSF larvae. Using metagenomic sequencing, we examined bacterial diversity associated with successive life stages of the BSF. The combined diversity of bacteria across all life stages spanned six bacterial phyla. Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were the most dominant, accounting for two-thirds of the species identified. The ecological consequences of the presences of bacteria from these phyla on waste can be both beneficial and detrimental to human and animal health. A detailed analysis of the microbial diversity in waste and associated waste management systems will enhance our ability to modulate these communities to maximize benefits to society while abating pathogen proliferation and dispersal.

Technical Abstract: Black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens (L.), larvae represent a sustainable method for reducing animal and plant wastes. Larvae reduce dry matter, bacteria, offensive odor, and house fly populations. The prepupae can be self-harvested and used as feedstuff for livestock and poultry. While some bacteria species have been cultured and identified from BSF, a true appreciation of fly associated bacterial diversity is not known. Such information is needed to understand pathogen colonization on decomposing animal and plant waste in the presence of BSF larvae. Using 454 sequencing, we examined bacterial diversity associated with successive life stages of the BSF reared on a Gainesville diet. We obtained 4852 PCR products from the different life stages of the fly, ranging in length from 210 bp to 551 bp (average length 343 bp). The number of sequences obtained from first generation egg, larva, prepupa, pupa, adult, and second generation egg stages were 37, 517, 1181, 2106, 883, and 128, respectively. The percent of sequences which classified at the phylum, class, order, family, and genus levels were 100%, 99.65%, 97.34%, 85.84%, 69.31%, and 31.55%, respectively, with = 80% bootstrap support. The combined diversity of bacteria classified (99.67%) across all life stages spanned six bacterial phyla with = 80% bootstrap support. Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were the most dominant phyla associated with the BSF accounting for two-thirds of the fauna identified. Many of these bacteria would typically go undetected due to their inability to be cultured. The ecological consequences of the presences of bacteria from these phyla on waste can be both beneficial and detrimental to human and animal health. A detailed analysis of the microbial diversity in waste and associated waste management systems will enhance our ability to modulate these communities to maximize benefits to society while abating pathogen proliferation and dispersal.

Last Modified: 8/27/2014
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