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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT OF PLANT-PARASITIC NEMATODES IN COTTON AND PEANUT Title: Resiliency of a nematode community and suppressive service to tillage and nematicide application.

Authors
item Timper, Patricia
item Davis, Richard
item Jagdale, Ganpati -
item Herbert, John -

Submitted to: Applied Soil Ecology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: April 3, 2012
Publication Date: May 7, 2012
Citation: Timper, P., Davis, R.F., Jagdale, G., Herbert, J. 2012. Resiliency of a nematode community and suppressive service to tillage and nematicide application. Applied Soil Ecology. 59:48-59.

Interpretive Summary: We predicted that populations of predatory and omnivorous nematodes would be slower to recover from conventional tillage and nematicide application than plant-feeding nematodes, and that lower populations of predators and omnivores would lead to greater survival and reproduction of plant-feeding nematodes (i.e., pest resurgence). A field study was conducted from 2008-2010 with two tillage regimes (strip and conventional) and two nematicide treatments (1,3-dichloropropene + aldicarb and a no-nematicide control) with six replications. Soil samples were collected pre-fumigation/tillage, post plant, and mid season during each year. Nematodes were extracted from soil and identified to genus. The field site had relatively high populations of predatory and omnivorous nematodes. Tillage had little impact on the nematode community, but the nematicides reduced numbers of all feeding groups compared to the control at post plant and mid season. However, for bacterial and plant feeders, there was also a consistent lingering effect of the nematicides the following year at pre-fumigation. Omnivores and predators were not severely impacted by the nematicide treatment; populations of both groups repeatedly recovered by the following spring from the yearly application of nematicides, with the exception of predators in 2008. We used two bioassays to measure the suppressive service of the soil community: one determined survival of the reniform nematode and the other reproduction of the peanut root-knot nematode. Survival of the reniform nematode was greater in soil that was heated to remove fauna and flora compared to native soil indicating that the native soil contained organisms that consumed nematodes. Application of nematicides disrupted the suppressive service of the soil community leading to an increase in survival of the reniform nematode at post plant and at mid season. Likewise, reproduction of root-knot nematodes was greater in soil that had been treated with nematicides. Organisms other than nematodes were likely involved in the suppressive service. For example, in the spring, there was little difference in numbers of predatory and omnivorous nematodes between the nematicide and control treatment, yet survival of the reniform nematode was lower in soil previously treated with nematicides than in control plots. The nematicides may have altered the soil community to allow a fungal, bacterial, or invertebrate antagonist of nematodes to increase in abundance.

Technical Abstract: We hypothesized that populations of predatory and omnivorous nematodes would be slower to recover from conventional tillage and nematicide application than the other nematode trophic groups, and that lower populations of predators and omnivores would lead to greater survival and reproduction of plant-feeding nematodes (i.e., pest resurgence). A field study was conducted from 2008-2010 with two tillage regimes (strip and conventional) and two nematicide treatments (1,3-dichloropropene + aldicarb and a no-nematicide control) with six replications arranged in a split-plot design. Soil samples were collected pre-fumigation/tillage, post plant, and mid season during each year. Nematodes were extracted from soil and identified to genus. The field site had relatively high populations of predatory and omnivorous nematodes and abundance of these feeding groups translated into a relatively high Structure Index (= 60) in the control plots. Tillage had little impact on the nematode community, but the combination of 1,3-D + aldicarb reduced numbers of all trophic groups compared to the control at post plant and mid season. However, for bacterial and plant feeders, there was also a consistent lingering effect of the nematicide the following year at pre-fumigation. Omnivores and predators were not severely impacted by the nematicide treatment; populations of both groups repeatedly recovered by the following spring from the yearly application of nematicides, with the exception of predators in 2008. We used two bioassays to measure the suppressive service of the soil community: one determined survival of the reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) and the other reproduction of Meloidogyne arenaria on peanut. Survival of R. reniformis was greater in defaunated compared to native soil indicating that the soil contained organisms that consumed nematodes. Application of nematicides led to an increase in survival of the R. reniformis from 53% in the control to 78% in treated plots at post plant, and from 55% in control plots to 66% in treated plots at mid season. Likewise, reproduction of M. arenaria was greater in soil treated with nematicides. At post plant, survival (%) of R. reniformis was negatively correlated with abundance of predators + omnivores. Organisms other than nematodes were likely involved in the suppressive service. This was particularly evident at pre-fumigation/tillage, when survival of R. reniformis was lower in plots previously treated with nematicides than in control plots. The nematicides may have altered the soil community to allow a fungal, bacterial, or invertebrate antagonist of nematodes to increase in abundance.

Last Modified: 11/26/2014
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