SUNFLOWER GERMPLASM DIVERSIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION UTILIZING WILD SUNFLOWER SPECIES, CYTOGENETICS, AND APPLIED GENOMICS
Location: Sunflower Research
Title: Transferring sclerotinia resistance genes from wild perennial Helianthus species into cultivated sunflower
Submitted to: Meeting Abstract
Publication Type: Abstract Only
Publication Acceptance Date: December 23, 2011
Publication Date: January 18, 2012
Citation: Liu, Z., Wei, F., Cai, X., Seiler, G.J., Gulya Jr, T.J., Rashid, K.Y., Jan, C. 2012. Transferring sclerotinia resistance genes from wild perennial Helianthus species into cultivated sunflower [abstract]. 2012 Annual National Sclerotinia Initiative Meeting Abstracts, January 18-20, 2012, Bloomington, MN. P.22.
Due to the lack of highly tolerant cultivated sunflower germplasm, new sources of Sclerotinia resistance from wild Helianthus species need to be identified and incorporated into a cultivated background. Wild perennial Helianthus species are highly resistant to Sclerotinia and have provided good sources of resistance for this project. Backcross BC4F3/BC4F4 progenies of stalk rot resistant hexaploid perennial H. californicus crossed with HA 410 were evaluated in replicated field trials in 2009-2011. Backcross progenies of five stalk and head rot resistant interspecific amphiploids crossed with HA 410 were established in the field, and BC2F4/BC3F3 families were evaluated in replicated field trials in 2009-2011. Crosses between NMS HA89 and head rot resistant diploid perennials H. maximiliani and H. nuttallii were advanced to BC1F4 and BC2F4 families for replicated field trials in 2009-2011. Stalk rot resistant diploid perennials H. maximiliani, H. giganteus, and H. grosseserratus were crossed with HA 410 in 2007, and their BC1F4/ BC2F3 families evaluated in replicated field trials in 2009-2011. Replicated field tests in 2009 and 2011 for head and stalk rot resistance indicated moderate to good resistance indicating successful gene introgression. Progeny families susceptible for two years were eliminated and those resistant for two years will be further tested. However, field trials in 2010 screening for head and stalk rot resistance failed to produce usable results due to the complications of unexpected midge damage and adverse environmental conditions. Likewise, field trials in 2011 for stalk rot resistance failed due to hail damage and an extremely wet growing season at Carrington. A genomic in situ hybridization technique (GISH) distinguishing chromosomes of the perennials and cultivated sunflower has been developed. This technique will be used to assess meiotic chromosome pairing between chromosomes of wild perennials and the cultivated line, and the chromosome segments introgressed into the cultivated background. New perennials of H. silphioides, H. salicifolius, H. hirsutus, H. occidentalis, H. divaricatus, and H. resinosus were established to further diversify the resistance genes and to increase the probability of identifying useful major resistance QTLs. Fifty-nine alien addition progeny plants from backcrosses of interspecific amphiploids with HA 410 have been grown in the greenhouse and are being characterized. The addition lines will provide materials for identifying major QTLs for Sclerotinia resistance on specific chromosomes. Over 200 advanced backcross progeny families were grown in Fargo for seed increase for the 2012 replicated field tests.