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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: BIOCONTROL AND OTHER TECHNOLOGIES FOR CONTROL OF INVASIVE SPECIES, WITH EMPHASIS ON ASIAN LONGHORNED BEETLE AND RELATED SPECIES

Location: Beneficial Insects Introduction Research

Title: The lethal effects of lambda-cyhalothrin and demand CS on Asian Longhorned Beetle, anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae): the implications for population suppression, tree protection, eradication and containment

Authors
item Smith, Michael
item Wu, Jinquan -

Submitted to: Journal of Economic Entomology
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: December 26, 2011
Publication Date: N/A

Interpretive Summary: Control of the Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) currently relies upon removal of infested trees and the injection of trees with an insecticide. These two methods contribute to the control adult ALB, but have their limitations. More specifically, removal of infested trees may often occur after beetles have dispersed. The insecticide may not reach all parts within the injected trees at doses high enough to kill adult beetles, and it may cause beetles to stop feeding and increase dispersal. Therefore, there is a need for additional eradication methodologies. In this study, we evaluated an insecticide known to kill insects when they come in contact with the chemical. We first evaluate the toxicity of the insecticide in the lab and determined the doses that effectively kill adult ALB. We subsequently evaluated the insecticide to determine how many days the insecticide would effectively kill beetles under field conditions. Collectively, results show that Demand® CS is highly effective against adult ALB, immediately disabling adult beetles upon contact, killing adult beetles within minutes and doing so for approximately 60-90 days. Based upon these characteristics, Demand represents a new method that does not exist within the current arsenal of tools from which APHIS and other agencies draw for eradication of ALB. More specifically, Demand can be applied: (1) in areas that are otherwise inaccessible for existing eradication program operations, e.g. survey, tree injection of insecticides and removal of infested trees (reference); (2) to infested trees immediately prior their removal, thereby preventing escape of adult beetle that would otherwise disperse during the process of cutting trees (reference); and (3) in concert with artificial attractants and attractive trees (sentinel or bait trees) to provide an Attract-and-Kill strategy for early detection, rapid response and population suppression, particularly when population are at low levels and very difficult to detect by conventional methods. Demand may also complement existing rapid response strategies, specifically tree removal, by application to infested trees in the interim period between detection and removal of infested trees, thereby preventing additional attack and dispersal (reference). Demand may also complement and enhance existing prophylactic methods by kill beetles immediately upon contact, thereby insuring that beetles pose no not threat of dispersal and attack of additional trees. The feasibility of these strategies is currently being evaluated.

Technical Abstract: Control of the Asian Longhorned Beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)currently relies upon removal of trees showing signs and symptoms of attack and tree injection with the systemic insecticide, neonicotinoid, imidacloprid. Although these two options certainly impact A. glabripennis, tree removal often occurs after beetles have had a chance to disperse. The variability in the distribution of imidacloprid within trees and the resulting ingestion of unpredictable and/or sublethal doses by adults, could lead to increased adult dispersal due to its antifeedant effects. Furthermore, these two control strategies may not always be desirable or feasible. Therefore, there is a need for additional eradication methodologies. This study evaluated the 24h contact toxicity of lambda-cyhalothrin for control of adult A. glabripennis using topical application under lab conditions. Results showed that beetles are sensitive to lambda-cyhalothrin: LD50 and LD90 were 0.13639 and 0.78461µg/beetle, respectively. This study also evaluated the residual activity of Demand CS. In the first experiment, adult A. glabripennis were caged on trees treated at 94, 204 and 315 mg/L of Demand under field conditions. Residual activity slowly declined over the 36 d test period and was positively correlated with dose. Doses of 204 and 315 mg/L provided 100 percent mortality for 8 d, and greater than 90 percent control for 29 d. At 36 d post treatment, 315 mg/L provided 85 percent control. In the second experiment, adult beetles walked across the surface of Denier bands treated with a series of Demand CS concentrations that had been exposed to the natural environment for 10, 20, 45, 69 and 90 d. Beetle mortality was recorded after 24 h. At doses of 150, 300, 450, and 600 mg/L, residual activity declined slowly over the 90 d test period. All doses provided 100 percent mortality up to 20 d post treatment. No significant differences were detected in mortality among doses at each test interval until day 90 post treatment when 450 and 600 mg/L provided 100 percent mortality. Collectively, results show that Demand CS is highly effective against adult A. glabripennis, immediately disabling adult beetles upon contact, killing adult beetles within minutes and doing so for approximately 60-90 days. Based upon these characteristics, Demand represents a new method that does not exist within the current arsenal of tools from which APHIS and other agencies draw for eradication of A. glabripennis. More specifically, Demand can be applied: (1) in areas that are otherwise inaccessible for existing eradication program operations; (2) to infested trees immediately prior their removal, thereby preventing escape of adult beetle; and (3) in concert with artificial attractants and sentinel to provide an Attract-and-Kill strategy. Demand may also complement existing rapid response strategies, specifically tree removal, by application to infested trees in the interim period between detection and removal of infested trees, thereby preventing additional attack and dispersal (reference). Demand may also complement and enhance existing prophylactic methods by kill beetles immediately upon contact, thereby insuring that beetles pose no threat of dispersal and attack of additional trees. The feasibility of these strategies is currently being evaluated.

Last Modified: 4/23/2014
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