REDUCING ASTRINGENCY, BITTERNESS, AND UNDESIRABLE FLAVORS OF POLYPHENOLIC-RICH FRUIT JUICES AND FUNCTIONAL BEVERAGES
Location: Food Processing and Sensory Quality Research
Title: Impact of cooking formulation on flavor and hydrophilic oxygen radical absorption capacity values of whole grain pigmented rice
Submitted to: Cereal Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: September 17, 2012
Publication Date: N/A
Interpretive Summary: Packaging preparation instructions for rice include the addition of salt, and sometimes oil, for cooking rice which can impact flavor. The bran color of whole grain rice also affects flavor. Brown, red, black, or purple bran rice was prepared in rice cookers with and without added salt and/or oil. The addition of salt and/or oil improved the flavor of the black rice by increasing its corn/popcorn/buttery flavor, and decreasing its water-like/metallic flavor and bitter taste. Whole grain rice is higher in healthful antioxidants, but the addition of salt and/or oil did not reduce this healthful benefit.
Whole grain rice is rich in healthful phenolic compounds that can impart flavors. Rice is prepared with water, salt, and/or oil. There is little opportunity to influence the flavor of plain rice during preparation. This research examines how cooking whole grain rice with salt, oil, or salt with oil, impacts flavor and antioxidant capacity. Nine commercial rice samples (three brown bran, three red bran, and three black or purple bran) were prepared in rice cookers with water only, with the addition of salt (0.5%), oil (0.525%v/w), or salt with oil (same concentrations). Flavor was evaluated using descriptive flavor analysis; and antioxidant capacity was measured by hydrophilic oxygen radical absorption capacity (H-ORAC) method. Black or purple rice had more oily, darkberry, sour/acidic flavors, and bitter taste and water-like metallic mouth feel than did red or brown bran rice. Brown bran rice had less earthy and animal/wet dog flavors than did black, purple, or red rice. Red rice was higher in bran/hay/straw, cardboard/musty and earthy flavor, while brown bran rice was higher in grainy/starchy and dairy flavors. The addition of salt, and salt with oil, significantly reduced bitterness and water-like/metallic flavor. Salt with oil increased corn/popcorn flavor. Addition of salt, oil, or salt with oil, had no effect on the H-ORAC. H-ORAC values for black or purple rice were more than twice that of brown bran and red bran rice. Salt, oil, or salt with oil, can be added to rice at cooking to modify taste without affecting antioxidant benefits.