|Gulya Jr, Thomas|
Submitted to: Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops Conference
Publication Type: Other
Publication Acceptance Date: July 29, 2011
Publication Date: September 12, 2011
Citation: Seiler, G.J., Gulya Jr, T.J. 2011. Evaluation of rare Helianthus eggertii achenes for oil concentration and fatty acid composition. 23rd Annual Association for the Advancement of Industrial Crops Meeting, September 11-14, 2011, Fargo, ND, Challenges and Opportunities for Industrial Crops Program and Abstracts. P. 83. Available: http://www.aaic.org/11program.htm Interpretive Summary: The average oil concentration of 288 g/kg is what would be expected for a wild perennial sunflower species. The average linoleic acid concentration of 728 g/kg is higher than expected for populations grown in southern latitudes. The concentration of palmitic and stearic acids in H. eggertii averaged 56 g/kg and 29 g/kg, respectively, which is a reduction of 30% compared to commercial sunflower oil. The lower saturated fatty acid profile has the potential to reduce saturated fatty acids in commercial sunflower oil. High linoleic acid concentration will provide a source for increasing this fatty acid in sunflower oil. Further research will be needed to determine the inheritance of the fatty acid composition and oil concentration. Other agronomic traits will need to be maintained during the introgression of these traits into cultivated sunflower.
Technical Abstract: Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) oil has the potential to be improved for nutritional and industrial purposes through selection and breeding. The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from wild species, resulting in a continuous improvement in agronomic traits. Interest in using wild species in breeding programs has increased, but information about oil concentration and fatty acid composition is lacking for a number of rare and threatened species. The objective of this study was to evaluate achenes of a rare wild perennial hexaploid, H. eggertii (Eggert’s sunflower), from the southeastern USA for oil concentration and fatty acid composition of four major fatty acids, palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. Thirteen populations of Eggert’s sunflower were collected throughout the broad distributional range of the species. Fatty acid composition was determined using gas chromatography on oil extracted from two 10-achene samples for each population converted to methyl esters using an organic catalyzed transesterification method. Oil concentration was determined using nuclear magnetic resonance. Helianthus eggertii had an average oil concentration of 288 g/kg, which was within the range expected for a wild perennial sunflower species. The average linoleic acid concentration was 728 g/kg, ranging from 582 to 772 g/kg. Linoleic acid concentration was higher than expected for populations grown in southern latitudes. The saturated palmitic and stearic fatty acids in H. eggertii averaged 84 g/kg, which is about 30% less than typical cultivated sunflower oil with approximately 120 g/kg. The lower saturated fatty acid profile and the higher linoleic concentration in the oil of H. eggertii indicates that this species has the potential to reduce saturated fatty acids and increase linoleic acid concentration in oil of traditional commercial sunflower grown at southern latitudes. Further research will be needed to determine the inheritance of the fatty acids and oil concentration. Other agronomic traits will need to be maintained during the introgression of these traits into cultivated sunflower.