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United States Department of Agriculture

Agricultural Research Service

Research Project: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT OF XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA (XF) AND OTHER EXOTIC AND INVASIVE DISEASES AND INSECT PESTS

Location: Crop Diseases, Pests and Genetics

Title: Floral Scent in Wisteria: Chemical Composition, Emission Pattern and Regulation

Authors
item Chen, Xinlu -
item LIN, HONG
item Wang, Fei -
item Chen, Feng -

Submitted to: Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 11, 2011
Publication Date: September 26, 2011
Citation: Chen, X., Lin, H., Wang, F., Chen, F. 2011. Floral Scent in Wisteria: Chemical Composition, Emission Pattern and Regulation. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 136:307-314.

Interpretive Summary: Volatile chemicals emitted from the flowers of Chinese wisteria (Wisteria sinenesis) and Japanese wisteria (W. floribunda) were investigated. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, about 30 and 22 compounds were detected from Chinese wisteria and Japanese wisteria flowers, respectively. These chemicals were classified into; (1) fatty acid derivatives, (2) benzenoids/phenylpropanoids, (3) terpenoids and (4) nitrogen-containing compounds. While volatile profiles of the two species showed similarities in general, variations were identified not only in quality and quantity in some compounds but also in spatial distribution in flower tissues. For example, among all flower parts, petals emitted the most. The emission of floral volatiles displayed a diurnal pattern which appears to be light-dependent. To further investigate the regulation of floral volatile emission, exogenous chemicals including silver thiosulphate (an ethylene inhibitor), salicylic acid and jasmonic acid were applied. The results showed that jasmonic acid promoted the emission of the floral volatiles in both short term and long term. However, neither silver thiosulphate nor salicylic acid was found to have significant effect on floral volatile emission. The implications of regulation in emission of floral volatiles in terms of reproductive biology of wisteria and the practical applications were discussed.

Technical Abstract: Volatile chemicals emitted from the flowers of Chinese wisteria (Wisteria sinenesis) and Japanese wisteria (W. floribunda) were collected using a dynamic headspace technique and identified by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. About 30 and 22 compounds were detected from Chinese wisteria and Japanese wisteria flowers and were classified into four major classes, including fatty acid derivatives, benzenoids/phenylpropanoids, terpenoids and nitrogen-containing compounds. Monoterpenes, (E)-ß-ocimene and linalool were the most abundant compounds emitted from both species. Despite strong similarity, the floral volatile profiles of the two species displayed variations in both quality and quantity. Spatial distribution, emission patterns and regulation of floral scent production was also studied, for which Chinese wisteria was used as a model. While floral volatiles were detected from all flower parts, petals emitted the most. The emission of floral volatiles displayed a diurnal pattern with the maximum emissions occurring during the daytime. This rhythmic pattern was verified to be light-dependent. Regulation of floral volatile emission by exogenous chemicals including silver thiosulphate (an ethylene inhibitor), salicylic acid and jasmonic acid was also analyzed. Jasmonic acid promoted the emission of the floral volatiles in both short-term and long-term. In contrast, neither silver thiosulphate nor salicylic acid showed significant effect on floral volatile emission. The implications of the results from this study to the understanding of the reproductive biology of wisteria and the practical application were discussed.

Last Modified: 9/29/2014
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